هيو ستوكويل

هيو ستوكويل
ولد Jersey

الجنرال السير هيو تشارلز ستـَكـْوِل Hugh Charles Stockwell GCB، KBE، DSO والقضيب (عاش 16 يونيو 1903 - 27 نوفمبر 1986) كان جندياً بريطانياً، أهم ما يـُذكر به هو قيادته للقوات البرية الأنگلو-فرنسية في العدوان الثلاثي على مصر وخدمته بصفته نائب القائد الأعلى للحلفاء في اوروبا في الناتو من 1960 حتى 1964.

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النشأة

وُلِد ستكوِل في جرسي، ولكنه أمضى طفولته في الهند حيث خدم والده (أيضاً هيو تشارلز ستكول) كضابط في مشاة المرتفعات الخفيفة.


الحرب العالمية الثانية

طوارئ الملايو

في 1952، عُين ستكوِل القائد العام للملايا حيث كان مسئولاً عن القوات البريطانية التي تقاتل في طوارئ الملايا.[1]

قيادة العدوان الثلاثي على مصر

وفي 1954، ترك ستكوِل الملايا ليقود الفيلق الأول،[2] وقبل أن يترك في 1956 ليقود الفيلق الثاني والقوات البرية الفرنسية الملحقة به في بورسعيد أثناء العدوان الثلاثي على مصر.[2][3] وفي تخطيطه للحرب على مصر، فضل ستكوِل كقائد بري لقوات الحلفاء العمليات المنهجية قليلة المخاطرة البطيئة والمتمحورة حول الدبابة سنتوريون.[4] In the summer of 1956, Stockwell rejected the Contingency Plan prepared by the British Chiefs of Staff, and instead submitted العملية مسكتير, which called for the British to take Alexandria and then for British armored forces to engage in a decisive battle of annihilation with the Egyptians north of Cairo.[5] Together with his deputy, the French General أندريه بوفر, Stockwell was highly opposed to the change imposed on Musketeer in September 1956 when Port Said replaced Alexandria as the main target.[6] Stockwell was not popular with the officers who served under him. One French officer recalled that Stockwell was:

“Extremely excitable, gesticulating, keeping no part of him still, his hands, his feet, and even his head and shoulders perpetually on the go, he starts off by sweeping objects off the table with a swish of his swagger cane or in his room by using it to make golf-strokes with the flower vases and ash-trays. Those are the good moments. You will see him pass in an instant from the most cheerfully expressed optimism to a dejection that amounts to nervous depression. He is a cyclothymic. By turns courteous and brutal, refined and coarse, headstrong in some circumstances, hesitant and indecisive in others, he disconcerts by his unpredictable responses and the contradictions of which he is made up. One only of his qualities remains constant: his courage under fire".[7]

When Beaufre suggested on November 3, 1956 that the Allies launch Telescope, namely Anglo-French paratroop landings in the Canal Zone ahead of schedule, Stockwell reluctantly argeed to the change.[8] Stockwell was always in favour of rigidly following already agreed to plans, and was most reluctant to see any changes, whereas Beaufre was all for changing plans to match with changed circumstances.[9] The differences between Stockwell and Beaufre were summarized by the American historian Derek Varble as: "Stockwell favored existing plans; their methodical construction and underlying staff work reduced risks. Beaufre, by contrast an opportunist, saw plans merely a means to an end, without much inherent value. For him, altered circumstances or assumptions provided adequate justfication to jettison part or all of the original plan".[10]

مكافأة له على خدمته في العدوان الثلاثي، حصل على قضيب مضافاً إلى مرتبة الخدمة المتميزة في تكريمات عيد ميلاد الملكة في 1957.[11] In the recommendation for the award, Stockwell's commander, General Sir Charles Keightley wrote, "[Stockwell's] skill, energy and courage throughout [the Suez campaign] were of the highest order."[12]

بعد العدوان الثلاثي

In 1957, Stockwell was promoted to the rank of general[2] and became Military Secretary to the Secretary of State for War, serving in that capacity until 1959.[1] From 1959 to 1960, he served as Adjutant-General to the Forces.[2]

In 1960, on the advice of Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, Stockwell was appointed Deputy Supreme Allied Commander Europe of NATO, a post which he held until his retirement in 1964.[13] Stockwell was described as a "surprise choice" for the position because he had never attended Staff College, Camberley, and had "spent his whole career as a fighting soldier."[14] As Deputy Supreme Allied Commander, he worked to promote the creation of strong conventional forces, and advocated "the use of tactical nuclear weapons only as a last resort."[13]


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التقاعد

After retiring from the military, Stockwell became the chairman of the Kennet and Avon Canal Trust and served in a variety of other positions for corporate and charitable organizations.[13] He died on November 27, 1986 of leukemia in Swindon, England.[3]

الهامش

  1. ^ أ ب "Gen. Hugh Stockwell; Led British in Egypt"
  2. ^ أ ب ت ث خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة fh836
  3. ^ أ ب "Gen. Sir Hugh Stockwell"
  4. ^ Varble, Derek The Suez Crisis 1956, Osprey: London 2003 pages 16-17.
  5. ^ Varble, Derek The Suez Crisis 1956, Osprey: London 2003 page 22.
  6. ^ Varble, Derek The Suez Crisis 1956, Osprey: London 2003 page 25.
  7. ^ Kyle, Keith Suez Britain’s End of Empire, London: I.B Tauris 2011 page 176.
  8. ^ Varble, Derek The Suez Crisis 1956, Osprey: London 2003 page 52.
  9. ^ Varble, Derek The Suez Crisis 1956, Osprey: London 2003 page 63.
  10. ^ Varble, Derek The Suez Crisis 1956, Osprey: London 2003 page 63.
  11. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 41092, p. 3419, 4 June 1957. Retrieved on 29 April 2009.
  12. ^ "Recommendations for Honours and Awards (Army)—Image details—Stockwell, Hugh Charles—Bar to Distinguished Service Order" (fee usually required to view pdf of full original recommendation). DocumentsOnline. The National Archives. Retrieved 29 April 2009.
  13. ^ أ ب ت Farrar-Hockley, p. 837
  14. ^ "NATO Picks Stockwell"

المراجع

وصلات خارجية

مناصب عسكرية
سبقه
Francis Matthews
Commandant of the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst
1948-1950
تبعه
David Dawnay
سبقه
Lashmer Whistler
General Officer Commanding the 3rd Division
1951-1952
تبعه
Nigel Poett
سبقه
Roy Urquhart
GOC Malaya
1952-1954
تبعه
Sir Geoffrey Bourne
سبقه
Sir James Cassels
GOC 1st (British) Corps
1954-1956
تبعه
Sir Harold Pyman
سبقه
Sir Colin Callander
Military Secretary
1957-1959
تبعه
Sir Geoffrey Thompson
سبقه
Sir Charles Loewen
Adjutant General
1959-1960
تبعه
Sir Richard Goodbody