قرصنة (إنترنت)

An image of a qbittorrent interface; a popular torrenting program due to its free and open-sourced design.
Qbittorrent is one of the most widely used torrenting programs due to its free and open-sourced nature.

القرصنة أونلاين Online piracy هي ممارسة downloading and distributing copyrighted content digitally without permission, such as music or software.[1][2] The principle behind piracy has predated the creation of the Internet, but its online popularity arose alongside the internet. Despite its explicit illegality in many developed countries, online piracy is still widely done by many users due to many ethical reasons and its ease of use has only gotten better as technology advances.

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التاريخ

The act of copying content without authorization goes back to when Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart visited the Sistine Chapel at the age of 14 and heard Allegri's Miserere being performed.[3] The piece's sheet-music was only authorized to be owned by three people: Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, John V of Portugal,[4] and Giovanni Battista Martini.[5] After having heard it once Mozart went back to his hotel and transcribed the entire piece from memory, coming back again two days later to proofread the transcription against the performance.[3] In the months following his transcription's publication, Mozart's fame for the act had gotten so high that Pope Clement XIV summoned him to Rome in order to grant him papal knighthood.[6]

A screenshot of the installation of limewire pro that was attained via the free version of limewire
LimeWire's paid version of their app was frequently acquired by users using the free version

Nathan Fisk traces the origins of modern online piracy back to similar problems posed by the advent of the printing press. Quoting from legal standards in MGM Studios, Inc. v. Grokster, Ltd., he notes that there have historically been a number of technologies which have had a "dual effect" of facilitating legitimate sharing of information, but which also facilitate the ease with which copyright can be violated. He likens online piracy to issues faced in the early 20th century by stationers in England, who tried and failed to prevent the large scale printing and distribution of illicit sheet music.[7]:9–10



انظر أيضاً

الهامش

  1. ^ Choi, David Y.; Perez, Arturo (April 2007). "Online piracy, innovation, and legitimate business models". Technovation. 27 (4): 168–178. doi:10.1016/j.technovation.2006.09.004. ISSN 0166-4972.
  2. ^ "Definition of: Internet piracy". PC Magazine Encyclopedia. Retrieved 26 October 2018.
  3. ^ أ ب Roche, Jerome; Allegri; Scholars, Tallis; Phillips; Palestrina; Mundy (June 1981). "Miserere". The Musical Times. 122 (1660): 412. doi:10.2307/961024. ISSN 0027-4666. JSTOR 961024.
  4. ^ Stevenson, Robert (2001). Barbosa Machado, Diogo. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.02018. 
  5. ^ Grove, George, 1820-1900. (1954). Grove's dictionary of music and musicians. Macmillan. OCLC 36817387.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  6. ^ "Vatican archive to display Mozart honour" (in الإنجليزية). ISSN 0140-0460. Retrieved 2020-01-30.
  7. ^ Fisk, Nathan (8 June 2009). Understanding Online Piracy: The Truth about Illegal File Sharing: The Truth about Illegal File Sharing. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-35474-8.
  8. ^ Larrier, Travis (March 4, 2013). "Bilal Is the Future (And the Present ... And the Past)". The Shadow League. Retrieved July 20, 2020.