حرب گن‌پـِيْ

حرب گن‌پـِيْ
Genpei (Gempei) War
جزء من نزاعات عشيرتي ميناموتوتايرا في أواخر فترة هـِيْ‌آن
Genpei kassen.jpg
مشهد من حرب گن‌پـِيْ
التاريخ1180–1185
الموقع
اليابان
النتيجة انتصار عشيرة ميناموتو؛ تأسيس شگونية كاماكورا
الخصوم
Sasa Rindo.svg عشيرة ميناموتو (يوري‌تومو) Ageha-cho.svg عشيرة تاي‌را Sasa Rindo.svg عشيرة ميناموتو (يوشي‌ناكا)
القادة والزعماء
يناموتو نو يوري‌تومو
Minamoto no Yoshitsune
Taira no Munemori أُعدِم
Taira no Shigehira أُعدِم
Taira no Tomomori 
ميناموتو نو يوشي‌ناكا 
Imai Kanehira 

قالب:Campaignbox Heian

حرب گن‌پـِيْ (源平合戦, Genpei kassen, Genpei gassen) (1180–1185) كانت نزاعاً بين عشيرتي تاي‌را و ميناموتو في أواخر فترة هـِيْ‌آن في اليابان. وقد أسفرت عن سقوط التايرا وتأسيس شگونية كاماكورا بقيادة ميناموتو نو يوري‌تومو في 1192.

الاسم "Genpei" (sometimes تـُرَوْمَن Gempei) comes from alternate readings of the kanji "Minamoto" (源 Gen) و "تاي‌را" (平 Hei). The conflict is also known in Japanese as the Jishō-Juei War (治承寿永の乱, Jishō-Juei no ran),[1][2] after the two Imperial eras between which it took place.

It followed a coup d'état by the Taira in 1179 and call to arms against them led by the Minamoto in 1180. The ensuing battle of Uji took place just outside كيوتو, starting a five-year-long war, concluding with a decisive Minamoto victory in the naval battle of Dan-no-ura.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

الخلفية

The Genpei War was the culmination of a decades-long conflict between the two aforementioned clans over dominance of the Imperial court, and by extension, control of Japan. In the Hōgen Rebellion[3] and in the Heiji Rebellion[4] of earlier decades, the Minamoto attempted to regain control from the Taira and failed.[5]:255–259


الأعقاب

The end of the Genpei War and beginning of the Kamakura shogunate marked the rise to power of the warrior class (samurai) and the gradual suppression of the power of the emperor, who was compelled to govern without effective political or military power, being effectively reduced to a purely symbolical and ceremonial head of state, until the Meiji Restoration over 650 years later.

In addition, this war and its aftermath established red and white, the colors of the Taira and Minamoto standards, respectively, as Japan's national colors.[بحاجة لمصدر] Today, these colors can be seen on the flag of Japan, and also in banners and flags in sumo and other traditional activities.

المعارك

خريطة معارك حرب گن‌پـِيْ

الشخصيات الرئيسية في حرب گن‌پـِيْ

عشيرة ميناموتو (وتُعرف أيضاً بإسم "گنجي")

Minamoto no Yoritomo, from an 1179 hanging scroll by Fujiwara no Takanobu

The Minamoto were one of the four great clans that dominated Japanese politics during the Heian period (794-1185). They were, however, decimated by the Taira in the Heiji Rebellion of 1160. Minamoto no Yoshitomo had been the head of the clan at this time; upon his defeat at the hands of Taira no Kiyomori, two of his sons were killed and the third, Minamoto no Yoritomo, was banished. Following the call to arms of Prince Mochihito and Minamoto no Yorimasa in 1180, the clan would gather together and rise to power again. The Genpei war would see the Minamoto clan defeat the Taira and take command of the entire country.

  • Minamoto no Noriyori (源範頼), general, younger brother of Yoritomo.
  • Minamoto no Yorimasa (源頼政), head of the clan at the beginning of the war.
  • Minamoto no Yoritomo (源頼朝), head of the clan upon Yorimasa's death.
  • Minamoto no Yoshitsune (源義経), younger brother of Yoritomo, chief general of the clan.
  • Minamoto no Yukiie (源行家), general, uncle to Yoritomo.
  • Allies and vassals:
    • Emperor Go-Shirakawa (後白河), cloistered (retired) emperor.
    • Prince Mochihito (以仁王), Imperial Prince.
    • Benkei (弁慶), sōhei (warrior monk), ally of Yoshitsune.
    • Hōjō Tokimasa (北条 時政), head of the Hōjō clan (北条), father-in-law of Yoritomo.
    • Kajiwara Kagetoki (梶原 景時), officially an ally of Yoshitsune, in fact a spy for Yoritomo.
    • Kumagai Naozane (熊谷 直実), vassal of Yoritomo.
    • Sasaki Moritsuna (佐々木 盛綱), vassal of Noriyori who commanded the assault at the battle of Kojima.
    • Taguchi Shigeyoshi (田口 重能), Taira general who turned to the Minamoto camp upon seeing the tide turn at the battle of Dan no Ura, thus ensuring Minamoto victory.
    • Nasu no Yoichi (那須与一), celebrated archer and Minamoto ally.
    • Yada Yoshiyasu (矢田 義康), vassal of Yoshinaka and commander of Minamoto forces at the battle of Mizushima.
    • The sōhei (warrior-monks) of Mii-dera and other temples. Three in particular are mentioned in the Heike Monogatari for their part in the first battle of Uji:
      • Tsutsui Jōmyō Meishū (筒井 浄妙 明秀), who fought a last stand on the bridge over the Uji, taking over sixty arrows and still fighting.
      • Gochi-in no Tajima (五智院 但馬), called Tajima the arrow-cutter, and famous for deflecting the Taira arrows with his naginata, upon the bridge over the Uji.
      • Ichirai Hoshi (一来 法師), who is famous for having jumped ahead of Jōmyō Meishū and led the Mii-dera monks to battle.
  • Partisans of Minamoto no Yoshinaka (源義仲), cousin of Yoritomo, who supported his rebellion:
    • Tomoe Gozen (巴 御前), a female samurai warrior.
    • Imai Kanehira (今井 兼平), who joined Yoshinaka in his escape to Seta.

عشيرة تايرا (وتُعرف أيضاً بإسم "هـِيْ‌كى")

Taira no Kiyomori, by Kikuchi Yōsai

The Taira clan was one of the four great clans which dominated Japanese politics during the Heian period (794–1185). As a result of the near-total destruction of their rival clan, the Minamoto, in the Heiji Rebellion of 1160, Taira no Kiyomori, head of the clan, initiated the Genpei War at the height of his power. The end of the war, however, brought destruction to the Taira clan.

  • Taira no Atsumori (平敦盛), young samurai killed by Kumagai Naozane who, because of his youth and innocence, became quite famous in death.
  • Taira no Kiyomori (平清盛), head of the clan at the beginning of the war.
  • Taira no Koremori (平維盛), grandson of Kiyomori.
  • Taira no Munemori (平宗盛), son and heir of Kiyomori; head of the clan for much of the war.
  • Taira no Noritsune (平教経), a Taira samurai.
  • Taira no Shigehira (平重衡), general, son of Kiyomori.
  • Taira no Tadanori (平忠度), general, brother of Kiyomori.
  • Taira no Tokiko (平時子), wife of Kiyomori who committed suicide at the battle of Dan-no-ura.
  • Taira no Tomomori (平知盛), general, son of Kiyomori.
  • Taira no Yukimori (平行盛), general, commander of the Taira forces at the battle of Kojima.
  • Taira no Kagekiyo (平景清), a Taira samurai, adopted from the Fujiwara clan.
  • Allies and vassals:
    • Emperor Antoku (安徳), Emperor of Japan and grandson of Taira no Kiyomori.
    • Ōba Kagechika (大庭景親), vassal of the Taira.
    • Saitō Sanemori (斎藤実盛), former vassal of Minamoto no Yoshitomo, switched sides and became a vassal of Taira no Munenori.
    • Senoo Kaneyasu (妹尾兼康), vassal of the Taira who commanded at the Fukuryūji fortress.
    • Taguchi Shigeyoshi (田口重能), Taira general who turned to the Minamoto camp upon seeing the tide turn at the battle of Dan no Ura, thus ensuring Minamoto victory.
    • The sōhei (warrior-monks) of Enryaku-ji (延暦寺), at least in theory, on account of their rivalry with the Mii-dera sōhei, who were allied with the Minamoto.

حرب گن‌پـِيْ في الأدب

Many stories and works of art depict this conflict. The Tale of the Heike (Heike Monogatari, 平家物語) is one of the most famous, though many Kabuki and bunraku plays reproduce events of the war as well. Ichinotani futaba gunki (Chronicle of the battle of Ichi-no-Tani) by Namiki Sōsuke may be one of the more famous of these.

"Shike" by Robert Shea features a somewhat fictionalised account of the wars, as seen from the perspectives of his two main characters, the Zinja Monk Jebu, and the Noblewoman Lady Shima Taniko. The names of the two rival clans have been changed, "Minamoto" to "Muratomo" and "Taira" to "Takashi".

Another fictionalized account of the conflict forms the central plot of Civil War (also known as Turbulent Times), the ninth volume of Osamu Tezuka's celebrated Phoenix series.

The Genpei War is the backdrop for much of Katherine Patterson's young adult novel, Of Nightingales That Weep.

حرب گن‌پـِيْ في الثقافة الشعبية

On September 27, 2011, The Creative Assembly released a DLC pack for Total War: Shogun 2 entitled "Rise of the Samurai", which allows players to play as members of the Taira, the Minamoto, or the Fujiwara families. Through a complex system of province building, diplomacy, research, and combat, players can decide the outcome of the Genpei War for themselves.

Cinemaware's 1989 Amiga title Lords of the Rising Sun features the Genpei war.

The conflict between the Genji and Heike gangs in the 2007 Japanese Western film Sukiyaki Western Django mirrors that of the actual Genpei war, albeit "a few hundred years after."


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

انظر أيضاً

الهامش

  1. ^ In the name "Jishō-Juei War", the noun "Jishō" refers to the nengō (Japanese era name) after "Angen" and before "Yōwa." In other words, the Jishō-Juei War occurred during Jishō, which was a time period spanning the years from 1177 through 1181.
  2. ^ In the name "Jishō-Juei War", the noun "Juei" refers to the nengō (Japanese era name) after "Yōwa" and before "Genryaku." In other words, the Jishō-Juei War occurred during Juei, which was a time period spanning the years from 1182 through 1184.
  3. ^ In the name "Hōgen Rebellion", the noun "Hōgen" refers to the nengō (Japanese era name) after "Kyūju" and before "Heiji." In other words, the Hōgen Rebellion occurred during Hōgen, which was a time period spanning the years from 1156 through 1159.
  4. ^ In the name "Heiji Rebellion", the noun "Heiji" refers to the nengō (Japanese era name) after "Hōgen" and before "Eiryaku." In other words, the Heiji Rebellion occurred during Heiji, which was a time period spanning the years from 1159 through 1160.
  5. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Sansom

وصلات خارجية

الكلمات الدالة: