اللهجة القبائلية

Kabyle
Taqbaylit 
موطنهاAlgeria; immigrant communities in France, Belgium, Canada and elsewhere
العرقKabyle people
الناطقون الأصليون
5 million in Algeria (2012)e17
Half a million elsewhere
Berber Latin alphabet
أكواد اللغات
ISO 639-2kab
ISO 639-3kab
Aires linguistiques du nord-est algérien.svg
Kabyle-speaking areas
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For a guide to IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

اللهجة القبائلية (قبايلي؛ الأسماء المحلية: تاقبايليت، قالب:IPA-tam؛ تمازيغت تاقبايليت، أو تازواوت) هي لهجة من لهجات اللغة الأمازيغية، يتحدثها سكان منطقة القبائل بشمال الجزائر إلى جانب الجاليات القبائلية بدول أروبا الغربية. يقدر عدد المتحدثين بها بأكثر من 7 ملايين في منطقة القبائل [1]، و بأكثر من 10 ملايين في بقية أنحاء العالم. هي اللهجة الأمازيغية الأكثر انتشارا بعد لهجة تاشلحيت (بجنوب المغرب).


في الجزائر، هي اللهجة الأمازيغية الأولى من حيث عدد المتحدثين، تتبعها اللهجة الشاوية.


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Phonology

هذه المقالة تحتوي على IPA phonetic symbols. بدون دعم العرض المناصب، فقد ترى علامات استفهام، مربعات، أو رموز أخرى بدلاً من Unicode characters.

The phonemes below reflect the pronunciation of Kabyle.


Vowels

Kabyle has three phonemic vowels:

Tamazight vowel phonemes[2]
Front Central Back
Close i u
Open a

e is used to write the epenthetic schwa vowel [ə] which occurs frequently in Kabyle. Historically it is thought to be the result of a pan-Berber reduction or merger of three other vowels.

The phonetic realization of the vowels, especially /a/, is influenced by the character of the surrounding consonants; emphatic consonants invite a more open realization of the vowel, e.g. aẓru = [azˤru] 'stone' vs. amud = [æmud] 'seed'. Often /a, i, u/ are realized as [æ, ɪ, ʊ]

Consonants

Kabyle consonant phonemes
Bilabial Labio-
dental
Dental Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Glottal
plain lab. plain emph. plain emph. plain emph. plain lab. plain lab. plain lab.
Stop and Affricate voiceless t [t] [tˤ] tt [ts] č [tʃ] k [k] k [kʷ] q [q] q [qʷ]
voiced b [b] b [bʷ] d [d] zz [dz] ǧ [dʒ] g [ɡ] g [ɡʷ]
Fricative voiceless f [f] t [θ] s [s] [sˤ] c [ʃ] c [ʃˤ] k [ç] k [çʷ] x [χ] x [χʷ] [ħ] h [h]
voiced b [β] d [ð] [ðˤ] z [z] [zˤ] j [ʒ] j [ʒˤ] g [ʝ] g [ʝʷ] ɣ [ʁ] ɣ [ʁʷ] ɛ [ʕ]
Nasal m [m] n [n]
Trill r [r] [rˤ]
Approximant central y [j] w [w]
lateral l [l] l [ɫ]

Fricatives vs. Stops

Kabyle is mostly composed of fricatives, phonemes which are originally stops in other Berber languages, but in writing there is no difference between fricatives and stops. Below is a list of fricatives vs. stops and when they are pronounced (note that gemination turns fricatives into stops).

Consonant B D G K T
Fricative /β/ Sound sample  /ð/ Sound sample  /ʝ/ Sound sample  /ç/ Sound sample  /θ/ Sound sample 
Stop /b/ /d/ /ɡ/ /k/ /t/
Is a stop after m l,n b,j,r,z,ɛ f,b,s,l,r,n,ḥ,c,ɛ l,n
Is a stop in the words
(and their derivatives)
ngeb, ngeḥ, ngeẓwer, angaẓ, ngedwi, nages,ngedwal

النحو

الأسماء

الأفعال

Verb Preterite ad + aorist Intensive aorist
If (to outdo) ifeɣ ad ifeɣ ttifeɣ
Muqel (to observe) muqleɣ ad muqleɣ ttmuquleɣ
Krez (to plough) kerzeɣ ad kerzeɣ kerrzeɣ
  • "Strong verbs" or "irregular verbs":
Verb Preterite ad + aorist Intensive aorist
Aru (to write) uriɣ ad aruɣ ttaruɣ
Kabyle subject affixes
Person sg. pl.
1 ...-ɣ n-...
2 m t-...-ḍ t-...-m
f t-...-mt
3 m i/y-... ...-n
f t-... ...-nt

Verbs are conjugated for person by adding affixes. These suffixes are static and identical for all tenses (only the theme changes). The epenthetic vowel e may be inserted between the affix and the verb. Verbs are always marked for subject and may also inflect for person of direct and indirect object.

Examples

« Yuɣ-it. » – "He bought it." (He.bought-it)
« Yenna-yas. » – "He said to him." (He.said-to.him)
« Yefka-yas-t. » – "He gave it to him." (He.gave-to.him-it)

Kabyle is a satellite-framed based language, Kabyle verbs use two particles to show the path of motion:

  • d orients toward the speaker, and could be translated as "here".
  • n orients toward the interlocutor or toward a certain place, and could be translated as "there".

Examples:

  • « iruḥ-d » (he came), « iruḥ-n » (he went).
  • « awi-d aman» (bring the water), « awi-n aman » (carry away the water).


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الضمائر

Pronouns may either occur as standalone words or bound to nouns or verbs.

Person Singular Plural
1st (m) nkk / nekki / nkkini nkkni / nkkwni
1st (f) nkk / nkkini nkknti
2nd (m) kčč / kčči / kččini kunwi / knwi
2nd (f) kmm / kmmi / kmmini kunnmti / knnmti
3rd (m) ntta / nttan / nttani nutni / nitni
3rd (f) nttat nutnti / nitnti

Example : « Ula d nekk. » – "Me too."

Possessive pronouns are bound to the modified noun.

Person Singular Plural
1st (m) (i)w / inu / nnu nnɣ
1st (f) (i)w / inu / nnu nntɣ
2nd (m) (i)k / ink / nnk nwn
2nd (f) (i)m / inm / nnm nknt
3rd (m) (i)s / ins / nns nsn
3rd (f) (i)s / ins nsnt

Example : « Axxam-nnɣ. » – "Our house." (House-our)

There are three demonstratives, near-deictic ('this, these'), far-deictic ('that, those') and absence. They may either be suffixed to nouns, or appear in isolation. Examples: « Axxam-a / Axxam-agi» – "This house.", (House-this), «Wagi yelha» – "This is nice." (This is-nice).

المراجع

  1. ^ «اللغة و الأدب الأمازيغي» مقال بالفرنسية لسالم شاكر، أستاذ لغة أمازيغية بمعهد اللغات و الحضارات الشرقية بباريس و مدير مركز البحوث الأمازيغية.
  2. ^ Abdel-Massih (1971b:11)

ببليوجرافيا

  • Achab, R. : 1996 – La néologie lexicale berbère (1945–1995), Paris/Louvain, Editions Peeters, 1996.
  • Achab, R. : 1998 – Langue berbère. Introduction à la notation usuelle en caractères latins, Paris, Editions Hoggar.
  • F. Amazit-Hamidchi & M. Lounaci : Kabyle de poche, Assimil, France, ISBN 2-7005-0324-4
  • (بالفرنسية) Benchabane, A. (2005). "Bouteflika ébranle la Kabylie". Algeria-Watch. Retrieved 2010-03-19.
  • Creissels, Denis (2006). "The construct form of nouns in African languages: a typological approach" in 36th Colloquium on African Languages and Linguistics.. Retrieved on 2010-03-21. 
  • Dallet, Jean-Marie. 1982. Dictionnaire kabyle–français, parler des At Mangellet, Algérie. Études etholinguistiques Maghreb–Sahara 1, ser. eds. Salem Chaker, and Marceau Gast. Paris: Société d'études linguistiques et anthropologiques de France.
  • Hamid Hamouma. n.d. Manuel de grammaire berbère (kabyle). Paris: Edition Association de Culture Berbère.
  • Kamal Nait-Zerrad. Grammaire moderne du kabyle, tajerrumt tatrart n teqbaylit. Editions KARTHALA, 2001. ISBN 978-2-84586-172-5
  • Lucas, Christopher (2007b), "Jespersen's Cycle in Arabic and Berber", Transactions of the Philological Society 105 (3), http://people.pwf.cam.ac.uk/cbl23/revisedjesaraber.pdf, retrieved on 2010-03-22 
  • Mammeri, M. : 1976 – Tajerrumt n tmaziɣt (tantala taqbaylit), Maspero, Paris.
  • Naït-Zerrad, K. : 1994 – Manuel de conjugaison kabyle (le verbe en berbère), L’Harmattan, Paris.
  • Naït-Zerrad, K. : 1995 – Grammaire du berbère contemporain, I – Morphologie, ENAG, Alger.
  • Salem Chaker. 1983. Un parler berbère d'Algérie (Kabyle): syntax. Provence: Université de Provence.
  • Tizi-Wwuccen. Méthode audio-visuelle de langue berbère (kabyle), Aix-en-Provence, Edisud, 1986.

وصلات خارجية

Websites in Kabyle

Online dictionaries

الكلمات الدالة: