قائمة سلاطين الدولة العثمانية

سلطان الدولة العثمانية </font>
ملكية سابقة
امبراطورية
Osmanli-nisani.svg
درع الدولة العثمانية
Sultans of the Ottoman Dynasty.jpg
السلاطين العثمانيون من عثمان الأول إلى محمد الخامس
أول عاهل عثمان الأول
آخر عاهل محمد السادس
الأسلوب صاحب الجلالة السلطانية[a]
الاقامة الرسمية قصور في إسطنبول:
المُـعيـِّن وراثية
الملكية بدأت 1299
الملكية انتهت 1922

العثمانيون، آل عثمان، الأتراك: سلالة تركية حكمت في الأناضول والبلقان وفي أراض واسعة أخرى، ما بين سنوات 1280-1922.

قائمة السلاطين

الراية السلطانية العثمانية


السلطان المخلوع (خط غامق) → هو السلطان الذي لم تنته فترة حكمه بالموت الطبيعي

# السلطان صورة بداية الحكم نهاية الحكم الطغراء ملاحظات
1 عثمان الأول Portrait of Osman I by John Young c. 1299 c. 1324
[c]
2 اورخان Portrait of Orhan c. 1324 c. 1360 Tughra of Orhan
3 مراد الأول
Hüdavendigar
Portrait of Murad I c. 1360 1389 Tughra of Murad I
4 بايزيد الأول
الصاعقة
Portrait of Bayezid I by Cristofano dell'Altissimo 1389 1402 طغراء بايزيد الأول
Ottoman Interregnum[d]
(1402–1413)
5 محمد الأول Portrait of Mehmed I 1413 1421 Tughra of Mehmed I
6 مراد الثاني Portrait of Murad II by John Young 1421 1444 Tughra of Murad II
7 محمد الثاني
the Conqueror
Portrait of Mehmed II by Gentile Bellini 1444 1446 Tughra of Mehmed II
  • ابن مراد الثاني وHüma Hatun;[8]
  • Surrendered the throne to his father after having asked him to return to power.[7]
مراد الثاني Portrait of Murad II by John Young 1446 3 فبراير 1451 Tughra of Murad II
  • Second reign;
  • Forced to return to the throne following a Janissary revolt;[9]
  • Reigned until his death.[6]
محمد الثاني
the Conqueror
Portrait of Mehmed II by Gentile Bellini 3 فبراير 1451 3 مايو 1481 Tughra of Mehmed II
8 بايزيد الثاني Portrait of Bayezid II by John Young 19 مايو 1481 25 ابريل 1512 Tughra of Bayezid II
9 سليم الأول
the Grim
Portrait of Selim I by John Young 25 ابريل 1512 21 سبتمبر 1520 Tughra of Selim I
10 سليمان الأول
القانوني or the Lawgiver
Portrait of Suleiman the Magnificent by Nakkaş Osman 30 سبتمبر 1520 6 أو 7 سبتمبر 1566 Tughra of Suleiman the Magnificent
11 سليم الثاني
the Sot
Portrait of Selim II by John Young 29 September 1566 21 December 1574 Tughra of Selim II
12 مراد الثالث Portrait of Murad III by John Young 22 ديسمبر 1574 16 يناير 1595 Tughra of Murad III
13 محمد الثالث Portrait of Mehmed III by John Young 27 يناير 1595 20 أو 21 ديسمبر 1603 Tughra of Mehmed III
14 أحمد الأول Portrait of Ahmed I by John Young 21 ديسمبر 1603 22 نوفمبر 1617 Tughra of Ahmed I
15 مصطفى الأول Portrait of Mustafa I by John Young 22 نوفمبر 1617 26 فبراير 1618 Tughra of Mustafa I
16 عثمان الثاني Portrait of Osman II by John Young 26 فبراير 1618 19 مايو 1622 Tughra of Osman II
  • Son of Ahmed I and Mahfiruz Sultan;
  • حكم حتى وفاته;
  • Assassinated by the Janissaries.[18]
مصطفى الأول Portrait of Mustafa I by John Young 20 مايو 1622 10 سبتمبر 1623 Tughra of Mustafa I
  • Second reign;
  • عاد الى العرش بعد اغتيال ابن اخيه;
  • Deposed and confined until his death in Istanbul on 20 January 1639.[17]
17 مراد الرابع Portrait of Murad IV by John Young 10 سبتمبر 1623 8 أو 9 فبراير 1640 Tughra of Murad IV
18 ابراهيم Portrait of Ibrahim by John Young 9 فبراير 1640 8 اغسطس 1648 Tughra of Ibrahim
19 محمد الرابع Portrait of Mehmed IV by John Young 8 اغسطس 1648 8 نوفمبر 1687 Tughra of Mehmed IV
20 سليمان الثاني Portrait of Suleiman II by John Young 8 نوفمبر 1687 22 يونيو 1691 Tughra of Suleiman II
21 أحمد الثاني Portrait of Ahmed II by John Young 22 يونيو 1691 6 فبراير 1695 Tughra of Ahmed II
22 مصطفى الثاني Portrait of Mustafa II by John Young 6 فبراير 1695 22 اغسطس 1703 Tughra of Mustafa II
23 أحمد الثالث Portrait of Ahmed III by John Young 22 اغسطس 1703 1 أو 2 اكتوبر 1730 Tughra of Ahmed III
24 محمود الأول Portrait of Mahmud I by John Young 2 اكتوبر 1730 13 ديسمبر 1754 Tughra of Mahmud I
25 عثمان الثالث Portrait of Osman III by John Young 13 December 1754 29 أو 30 اكتوبر 1757 Tughra of Osman III
26 مصطفى الثالث Portrait of Mustafa III by John Young 30 اكتوبر 1757 21 يناير 1774 Tughra of Mustafa III
27 عبد الحميد Portrait of Abdülhamid I by John Young 21 يناير 1774 6 أو 7 ابريل 1789 Tughra of Abdülhamid I
28 سليم الثالث Portrait of Selim III by Konstantin Kapidagli 7 ابريل 1789 29 مايو 1807 Tughra of Selim III
  • Son of Mustafa III and Mihrişah Sultan;
  • Deposed in a Janissary revolt due to his reforms;
  • Assassinated in Istanbul on 28 July 1808.[30]
29 مصطفى الرابع Portrait of Mustafa IV by John Young 29 مايو 1807 28 يوليو 1808 Tughra of Mustafa IV
30 محمود الثاني Portrait of Mahmud II by John Young 28 يوليو 1808 1 يوليو 1839 Tughra of Mahmud II
31 عبد المجيد الأول Portrait of Abdülmecid I 1 يوليو 1839 25 يونيو 1861 Tughra of Abdülmecid I
32 عبد العزيز Portrait of Abdülaziz 25 يونيو 1861 30 مايو 1876 Tughra of Abdülaziz
  • Son of Mahmud II and Sultana Pertevniyal;
  • خلع على يد وزراؤه;
  • Found dead (suicide or murder) five days later.[34]
33 مراد الخامس Portrait of Murad V 30 مايو 1876 31 اغسطس 1876 Tughra of Murad V
34 عبد الحميد الثاني
Portrait of Abdülhamid II 31 اغسطس 1876 27 ابريل 1909 طغراء السلطان عبد الحميد الثاني
35 محمد الخامس Portrait of Mehmed V 27 ابريل 1909 3 يوليو 1918 طغراء محمد الخامس
36 محمد السادس Portrait of Mehmed VI by Sebah & Joaillier 4 يوليو 1918 1 نوفمبر 1922 Tughra of Mehmed VI
حل الدولة العثمانية[e]
(1922–1923)
عبد المجيد الثاني
(خليفة فقط)
Portrait of Abdülmecid II 18 نوفمبر 1922 3 مارس 1924
[c]

انظر أيضا

-

الهوامش

a1 2 : The full style of the Ottoman ruler was complex, as it was composed of several titles and evolved over the centuries. The title of sultan was used continuously by all rulers almost from the beginning. However, because it was widespread in the Muslim world, the Ottomans quickly adopted variations of it to dissociate themselves from other Muslim rulers of lesser status. Murad I, the third Ottoman monarch, styled himself sultan-i azam (the most exalted sultan) and hüdavendigar (emperor), titles used by the Anatolian Seljuqs and the Mongol Ilkhanids respectively. His son Bayezid I adopted the style Sultan of Rûm, Rûm being an old islamic name for Anatolia. The combining of the Islamic and Central Asian heritages of the Ottomans led to the adoption of the title that became the standard designation of the Ottoman ruler: Sultan [Name] Khan.[42] Ironically, although the title of sultan is most often associated in the Western world with the Ottomans, people within Turkey generally use the title of padishah far more frequently when referring to rulers of the Ottoman Dynasty.[43] The full style of the Ottoman sultan once the empire's frontiers had stabilized became:[44]
"Sovereign of The Osman Family, Sultan es Selatin (Sultan of Sultans), Khakhan (Khan of the Khans), Caliph of the Faithful, Servant of the Cities of Mecca, Medina and Kouds (Jerusalem), Padishah of The Three Cities of Istanbul (Constantinople), Edirne (Adrianople) and Bursa, and of the Cities of Châm (Damascus) and Misr (Egypt), of all Azerbaijan, of Mägris, of Barkah, of Kairouan, of Alep, of Iraq, of Arabia and of Ajim, of Basra, of El Hasa, of Dilen, of Raka, of Mosul, of Parthia, of Diyarbakir, of Cilicia, of the Vilayets of Erzurum, of Sivas, of Adana, of Karaman, of Van, of Barbaria, of Habech (Abyssinia), of Tunisia, of Tyrabolos (Tripoli), of Châm (Syria), of Kybris (Cyprus), of Rhodes, of Candia (Crete), of the Vilayet of Morea (Peloponnese), of Ak Deniz (Mediterranean Sea), of Kara Deniz (Black Sea), of Anatolia, of Rumelia (the European part of the Empire), of Bagdad, of Kurdistan, of Greece, of Turkestan, of Tartary, of Circassia, of the two regions of Kabarda, of Gorjestan (Georgia), of the plain of Kypshak, of the whole country of the Tartars, of Kefa (Feodosiya) and of all the neighbouring countries, of Bosnia and dependancies, of the City of Belgrade, of the Vilayet of Serf (Serbia), with all the castles and cities, of all the Arnaut Vilayet (Albania), of all Iflak (Wallachia) and Bogdania (Moldavia), as well as all the dependancies and borders, and many others countries and cities"
b^ : The Ottoman Caliphate was one of the most important positions held by rulers of the Ottoman Dynasty. The caliphate symbolized their spiritual power, whereas the sultanate represented their temporal power. According to Ottoman historiography, Selim I acquired the title of caliph during his conquest of Egypt in 1517, after the last Abbasid in Cairo, Al-Mutawakkil III, relinquished the caliphate to him. However, the general consensus among modern scholars is that this transference of the caliphate was a fabricated myth invented in the 18th century when the idea of an Ottoman Caliphate became useful to bolster waning military power. In fact, Ottoman rulers had used the title of caliph before the conquest of Egypt, as early as Murad I. It is currently agreed that the caliphate "disappeared" for two-and-a-half centuries, before being revived with the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, signed between the Ottoman Empire and Catherine II of Russia in 1774. The treaty was highly symbolic, since it marked the first international recognition of the Ottomans' claim to the caliphate. Although the treaty officialised the Ottoman Empire's loss of the Crimean Khanate, it acknowledged the Ottoman caliph's continuing religious authority over Muslims in Russia.[45] From the 18th century onwards, Ottoman sultans increasingly emphasized their status as caliphs in order to stir Pan-Islamist sentiments among the empire's Muslims in the face of encroaching European imperialism. When World War I broke out, the sultan/caliph issued a call for jihad in 1914 against the Ottoman Empire's Allied enemies, vainly inciting the subjects of the French, British and Russian empires to revolt. Abdülhamid II was by far the Ottoman sultan who made the most use of his caliphal position, and was recognized as caliph by many Muslim heads of state, even as far away as Sumatra.[46] He had his claim to the title inserted into the 1876 Constitution (Article 4).[47]
c1 2 : Tughras were used by 35 out of 36 Ottoman sultans, starting with Orhan in the 14th century, whose tughra has been found on two different documents. No tughra bearing the name of Osman I, the founder of the empire, has ever been discovered, although a coin with the inscription "Osman bin Ertuğrul bin Gündüz Alp" has been identified.[48] Abdülmecid II, the last Ottoman caliph, also lacked a tughra of his own, since he did not serve as head of state (that position being held by Mustafa Kemal, President of the newly founded Republic of Turkey) but as a mere religious figurehead.
d^ : The Ottoman Interregnum, also known as the Ottoman Triumvirate (بالتركية: Fetret Devri), was a period of chaos in the Ottoman Empire which lasted from 1402 to 1413. It started following the defeat and capture of Bayezid I by the Turco-Mongol warlord Tamerlane at the Battle of Ankara, which was fought on 20 July 1402. Bayezid's sons fought each other for over a decade, until Mehmed I emerged as the undisputed victor in 1413.[49]
e^ : The dissolution of the Ottoman Empire was a gradual process which started with the abolition of the sultanate and ended with that of the caliphate 16 months later. The sultanate was formally abolished on 1 November 1922. Sultan Mehmed VI fled to Malta on 17 November aboard the British warship Malaya.[38] This event marked the end of the Ottoman Dynasty, not of the Ottoman State nor of the Ottoman Caliphate. On 18 November, the Grand National Assembly (TBMM) elected Mehmed VI's cousin Abdülmecid II, the then crown prince, as caliph.[50] The official end of the Ottoman State was declared through the Treaty of Lausanne (24 July 1923), which recognized the new "Ankara government," and not the old Istanbul-based Ottoman government, as representing the rightful owner and successor state. The Republic of Turkey was proclaimed by the TBMM on 29 October 1923, with Mustafa Kemal as its first President.[51] Although Abdülmecid II was a figurehead lacking any political power, he remained in his position of caliph until the office of the caliphate was abolished by the TBMM on 3 March 1924.[47] Mehmed VI later tried unsuccessfully to reinstall himself as caliph in the Hejaz.[52]

المصادر

  1. ^ Sultan Osman Gazi. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. وُصِل لهذا المسار في 2 فبراير 2009.
  2. ^ Sultan Orhan Gazi. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. وُصِل لهذا المسار في 2 فبراير 2009.
  3. ^ Sultan Murad Hüdavendigar Han. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. وُصِل لهذا المسار في 2 فبراير 2009.
  4. ^ Sultan Yıldırım Beyezid Han. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. وُصِل لهذا المسار في 2 فبراير 2009.
  5. ^ Sultan Mehmed Çelebi Han. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. وُصِل لهذا المسار في 2 فبراير 2009.
  6. ^ أ ب Sultan II. Murad Han. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. وُصِل لهذا المسار في 2 فبراير 2009.
  7. ^ أ ب Chronology: Sultan II. Murad Han. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. وُصِل لهذا المسار في 4 أبريل 2009.
  8. ^ Fatih Sultan Mehmed Han. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. وُصِل لهذا المسار في 2 فبراير 2009.
  9. ^ Kafadar 1996, p. xix
  10. ^ Sultan II. Bayezid Han. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. وُصِل لهذا المسار في 2 فبراير 2009.
  11. ^ Yavuz Sultan Selim Han. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. وُصِل لهذا المسار في 2 فبراير 2009.
  12. ^ Kanuni Sultan Süleyman Han. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. وُصِل لهذا المسار في 2 فبراير 2009.
  13. ^ Sultan II. Selim Han. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. وُصِل لهذا المسار في 2 فبراير 2009.
  14. ^ Sultan III. Murad Han. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. وُصِل لهذا المسار في 2 فبراير 2009.
  15. ^ Sultan III. Mehmed Han. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. وُصِل لهذا المسار في 2 فبراير 2009.
  16. ^ Sultan I. Ahmed. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. وُصِل لهذا المسار في 2 فبراير 2009.
  17. ^ أ ب Sultan I. Mustafa. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. وُصِل لهذا المسار في 2 فبراير 2009.
  18. ^ Sultan II. Osman Han. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. وُصِل لهذا المسار في 2 فبراير 2009.
  19. ^ Sultan IV. Murad Han. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. وُصِل لهذا المسار في 2 فبراير 2009.
  20. ^ Sultan İbrahim Han. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. وُصِل لهذا المسار في 2 فبراير 2009.
  21. ^ Sultan IV. Mehmed. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. وُصِل لهذا المسار في 2 فبراير 2009.
  22. ^ Sultan II. Süleyman Han. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. وُصِل لهذا المسار في 2 فبراير 2009.
  23. ^ Sultan II. Ahmed Han. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. وُصِل لهذا المسار في 2 فبراير 2009.
  24. ^ Sultan II. Mustafa Han. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. وُصِل لهذا المسار في 2 فبراير 2009.
  25. ^ Sultan III. Ahmed Han. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. وُصِل لهذا المسار في 2 فبراير 2009.
  26. ^ Sultan I. Mahmud Han. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. وُصِل لهذا المسار في 2 فبراير 2009.
  27. ^ Sultan III. Osman Han. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. وُصِل لهذا المسار في 2 فبراير 2009.
  28. ^ Sultan III. Mustafa Han. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. وُصِل لهذا المسار في 2 فبراير 2009.
  29. ^ Sultan I. Abdülhamit Han. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. وُصِل لهذا المسار في 2 فبراير 2009.
  30. ^ Sultan III. Selim Han. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. وُصِل لهذا المسار في 2 فبراير 2009.
  31. ^ Sultan IV. Mustafa Han. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. وُصِل لهذا المسار في 2 فبراير 2009.
  32. ^ Sultan II. Mahmud Han. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. وُصِل لهذا المسار في 2 فبراير 2009.
  33. ^ Sultan Abdülmecid Han. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. وُصِل لهذا المسار في 2 فبراير 2009.
  34. ^ Sultan Abdülaziz Han. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. وُصِل لهذا المسار في 2 فبراير 2009.
  35. ^ Sultan V. Murad Han. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. وُصِل لهذا المسار في 2 فبراير 2009.
  36. ^ Sultan II. Abdülhamid Han. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. وُصِل لهذا المسار في 2 فبراير 2009.
  37. ^ Sultan V. Mehmed Reşad Han. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. وُصِل لهذا المسار في 2 فبراير 2009.
  38. ^ أ ب Sultan VI. Mehmed Vahdettin Han. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. وُصِل لهذا المسار في 2 فبراير 2009.
  39. ^ As̜iroğlu 1992, p. 13
  40. ^ As̜iroğlu 1992, p. 17
  41. ^ As̜iroğlu 1992, p. 14
  42. ^ Peirce 1993, pp. 158–159
  43. ^ M'Gregor, J. (July 1854). "The Race, Religions, and Government of the Ottoman Empire". The Eclectic Magazine of Foreign Literature, Science, and Art 32: p. 376. New York: Leavitt, Trow, & Co.. OCLC 6298914. Retrieved on 2009-04-25. 
  44. ^ Ozgen، Korkut. The Ottomans History. TheOttomans.org. وُصِل لهذا المسار في 2 فبراير 2009.
  45. ^ "Ottomans". The New Encyclopedia of Islam. (2003). Ed. Glassé, Cyril. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press. 349–351. Retrieved on 2009-05-02. 
  46. ^ Quataert 2005, pp. 83–85
  47. ^ أ ب Toprak 1981, pp. 44–45
  48. ^ Mensiz، Ercan. About Tugra. Tugra.org. وُصِل لهذا المسار في 2 فبراير 2009.
  49. ^ Sugar 1993, pp. 23–27
  50. ^ As̜iroğlu 1992, p. 54
  51. ^ Glazer 1996, "Table A. Chronology of Major Kemalist Reforms"
  52. ^ Steffen, Dirk (2005). "Mehmed VI, Sultan". World War I: Encyclopedia Volume III: M–R. Ed. Tucker, Spencer. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. Retrieved on 2009-05-02. 

بيليوگرافيا

وصلات خارجية

لقب جديد
تأسيس الدولة
حكام الدولة العثمانية
1299–1922
إلغاء السلطنة
(السلطة انتقلت إلى رؤساء تركيا)
ألقاب إسلامية سنية
سبقه
الخلافة العباسية
(في القاهرة)
حاملو الخلافة
1517–1924
شاغر
اللقب حمله بعد ذلك
الحسين بن علي، شريف مكة

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