النجمة التساعية للشخصية

(تم التحويل من تصنيف الشخصيات التسعة)
123456789
شكل النجمة التساعية (اضغط على الرقم لقراءة الملفة)

النجمة التساعية للشخصية أو تصنيف الشخصيات التسعة Instinctual subtypes — وتعرف باسم النجمة التساعية — هو تطبيق لشكل النجمة التساعية الهندسي فيما يتعلق بالسمات الشخصية المختلفة. يتكون شكل النجمة التساعية من عشر نقاط، تمثل عادة داخل دائرة.

The Enneagram of Personality is mostly taught and understood as a psychospiritual typology (a model of personality types) [1][2] but is also presented in ways intended to discover and develop higher states of being, essence and enlightenment.[3] Each Enneagram personality type expresses a distinctive and habitual pattern of thinking and emotions. The behavioral characteristics of the personality types are less distinctive. It is claimed[ممن؟] that by recognizing their personality pattern a person may be able to use the Enneagram as an effective method for self-understanding and self-development.[4]

The term Enneatype rather than "Enneagram personality type" is used in some publications. The International Enneagram Association claims that the Enneagram of Personality is being applied in many varied fields including business, psychotherapy, organizational development, career coaching, the arts, health care, parenting, education, and spiritual growth.[5]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

شكل النجمة

The enneagram figure is usually composed of three parts, a circle, an inner triangle and a hexagonal "periodic figure". According to esoteric spiritual traditions,[6] the circle symbolizes unity, the inner triangle symbolizes the "law of three" and the hexagon represents the "law of seven". These three elements constitute the enneagram figure.[7]


التنمية

G. I. Gurdjieff

The enneagram figure used with the Enneagram of Personality was first brought to the attention of the modern world by G. I. Gurdjieff, though it was first published by P.D. Ouspensky, a student of Gurdjieff, in 1947 in his book In Search of the Miraculous. Although Gurdjieff used the figure to describe possibilities of human development, his concept of it was principally related to the symbolic communication of ancient knowledge and the "self-work" process through which people may develop insight rather than the categorizing of personality styles.[8][9]

Oscar Ichazo

Oscar Ichazo assigned what he referred to as ego fixations to each of the nine points of the enneagram figure (which in his early teachings is usually called an enneagon). With a number of other dimensions of personality mapped with the enneagram figure, Ichazo's Enneagon of Ego Fixations formed the principal basis of the Enneagram of Personality as it is now usually understood. Some aspects of Enneagram of Personality teachings, however, are mainly derived from Claudio Naranjo who had studied with Ichazo in Chile.

Ichazo, from the 1950s, taught a program of self-development work that he calls "Protoanalysis" which uses the enneagram figure among many other symbols and ideas. Ichazo founded the Arica Institute which was originally based in Chile. The contemporary Arica School offers programs around the world in various aspects of Ichazo's work.

Claudio Naranjo

Claudio Naranjo, a Chilean-born, American-trained psychiatrist who extensively explored the theories of personality, studied with Ichazo in Chile. He then took Ichazo's teachings and further developed them, articulating nine personality types in Western psychological terms. Naranjo then brought his understanding of the Enneagram system to Berkeley, California, where he taught it to private students in the context of his own program of self-development work in the early 1970s.[10]

Based on material first taught by Claudio Naranjo, authors such as Helen Palmer, Don Riso, Russ Hudson, Patrick O'Leary, Richard Rohr and Elizabeth Wagele began to publish the first widely read books on the Enneagram of Personality beginning in the 1980s and 1990s.

أنواع الشخصيات التسعة

According to Enneagram of Personality theory, the points of the enneagram figure indicate a number of ways in which nine principal ego-archetypal forms or types of human personality ("Enneatypes") are psychologically connected.[11]

People of each Enneatype are usually referred to after the number of the point on the enneagram figure (Eights, Fours, Sixes etc.) that indicates their particular psychological space and 'place' of connection to the other types. They are also often given names that suggest some of their more distinctive archetypal characteristics.[12]

Brief descriptions of the nine Enneatypes are as follows:

الأولى

سمات الشخصية: المثالي[13]
Ego Fixation: Resentment[14]
الفكرة المقدسة: الكمال[14]
المخاوف الأساسية: Being corrupt/evil, defective[15]
الرغبة الأساسية: To be good, to have integrity, to be balanced[15]
Temptation: To be hypocritical or hypercritical of others
Vice/Passion: Anger[16]
Virtue: Serenity[17]
Stress/Disintegration point: Four. Angry and critical Ones may become moody and irrational like unhealthy Fours[15]
Security/Integration point: Seven. Objective and principled Ones may become more spontaneous and joyful like healthy Sevens[15]

الثانية

سمات الشخصية: المساعد[13]
Ego Fixation: Flattery[14]
الفكرة المقدسة: الحرية[14]
المخاوف الأساسية: Being unworthy of being loved[18]
الرغبة الأساسية: To be loved unconditionally[18]
Temptation: To manipulate others in order to get positive responses[18]
Vice/Passion: Pride (specifically, Vainglory, the love of one's own goodness)[16]
Virtue: Altruism[17]
Stress/Disintegration point: Eights. When Twos give without receiving back they become manipulative and angry like unhealthy Eights[18]
Security/Integration point: Four. Helpful Twos may become emotionally strong, caring, and authentic like healthy Fours[18]

الثالثة

سمات الشخصية: المنجز[13]
Ego fixation: Vanity[14]
كمال: الأمل[14]
المخاوف الأساسية: Being worthless[19]
الرغبة الأساسية: أن يصبح ذو قيمة[19]
Temptation: To please everybody
Vice/Passion: Deceit[16]
Virtue: Truthfulness[17]
Stress/Disintegration point: Nine. Burnt-out Threes may begin to disengage from their relentless drive to success and behave like unhealthy Nines[19]
Security/Integration point: Six. If Threes recognize that being on top of everything is not everything, they may become comfortable in being committed to others, like healthy Sixes. Commitment to relationships may enable them to explore their emotions[19]

الرابعة

سمات الشخصية: المبدع[13]
Ego fixation: Melancholy[14]
الفكرة المقدسة: Origin[14]
المخاوف الأساسية: Being commonplace[20]
الرغبة الأساسية: To be unique and authentic[20]
Temptation: To beat themselves up and withdraw
Vice/Passion: Envy[16]
Virtue: Equanimity[17]
Stress/Disintegration point: Two. Disintegrating Fours may become dissatisfied like unhealthy Twos
Security/Integration point: One. Self-actualized Fours may become idealistic and progressive like healthy Ones

الخامسة

سمات الشخصية: الملاحظ [13]
Ego Fixation: Stinginess [14]
الفكرة المقدسة: Omniscience [14]
المخاوف الأساسية: Being useless, helpless, or incapable [21]
الرغبة الأساسية: To be capable and competent [21]
Temptation: To keep the world at bay
Vice/Passion: Avarice [16]
Virtue: Detachment [17]
Stress/Disintegration point: Seven. Detached Fives may become hyperactive and scattered like unhealthy Sevens [21]
Security/Integration point: Eight. Integrated Fives may become self-confident and decisive like healthy Eights [21]

السادسة

سمات الشخصية: الملتزم[13]
Ego fixation: Cowardice[14]
الفكرة المقدسة:' الايمان[14]
المخاوف الأساسية : To be without a support system in an unforgiving world[22]
الرغبة الأساسية: أن يشعر بالأمان[22]
Temptation: To question the intentions of everyone around them
Vice/Passion: Fear[16]
Virtue: Courage[17]
Stress/Disintegration point: Three. Paranoid and anxious Sixes may try to win over others, like unhealthy Threes, to cover up their anxiety
Security/Integration point: Nine. Positive Sixes may become more peaceful, open and receptive like healthy Nines


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

السابعة

سمات الشخصية: المتحمس[13]
Ego fixation: التخطيط [14]
الفكرة المقدسة: العمل[14]
المخاوف الأساسية: Boredom[23]
الرغبة الأساسية: To experience as much of the world as possible[23]
Temptation: Moving too fast
Vice/Passion: Gluttony[16]
Virtue: Sobriety[17]
Stress/Disintegration point: One. When forced to stand still, Sevens may become irritable and impatient like unhealthy Ones
Security/Integration point: Five. Confident and experienced Sevens may bring a sense of calm to hectic situations like healthy Fives

الثامنة

سمات الشخصية: المتحدي[13]
Ego fixation: Vengeance[14]
الفكرة المقدسة: الحقيقة[14]
المخاوف الأساسية: Of being harmed or controlled by others, of violation[24]
الرغبة الأساسية: To protect themselves, to determine their own course in life[24]
Temptation: To be too self-sufficient
Vice/Passion: Lust[16]
Virtue: Magnanimity[17]
Stress/Disintegration point: Five. Eights may become withdrawn and isolated like unhealthy Fives in their pursuit of control
Security/Integration point: Two. Proactive and forward-thinking Eights learn to become helpful and cooperative like healthy Twos

التاسعة

سمة الشخصية: صانع السلام[13]
Ego fixation: Indolence, self-forgetting[14]
الفكرة المقدسة: الحب [14]
المخاوف الأساسية: الضياع والانفصال; الفناء[25]
الرغبة الأساسية: To maintain inner stability and peace of mind[25]
Temptation: To go along to get along[25]
Vice/Passion: Indifference[16]
Virtue: Right action[17]
Stress/Disintegration point: Six. Nines may become anxious, suspicious, and negative like unhealthy Sixes and may express more aggression
Security/Integration point: Three. Nines may begin to work at developing themselves and their potential and move into greater action in the world, like healthier Threes

الارتباطات بين الأنواع

الأجنحة

نقاط الأمن والضغط

Instinctual subtypes

المعايير الاتجاهية

اتجاه سطحي→

اتجاه عميق↓

− Against
(confronting)
0 Away
(withdrawing)
+ Towards
(embracing)
+ Towards
(Approval Seeking)
3 9 6
0 Away
(Ideal Seeking)
1 4 7
− Against
(Power Seeking)
8 5 2

انظر أيضا

قراءات إضافية

  • Almaas, A. H. (2000). Facets of Unity: The Enneagram of Holy Ideas. Shambhala. ISBN 0-936713-14-3.
  • Bartlett, Carolyn (2008). The Enneagram Field Guide: Notes on Using the Enneagram in Counseling, Therapy and Personal Growth. ISBN 978-0979012549.
  • Beesing, Maira (O'Leary, Patrick; and Nogosek, Robert J.). The Enneagram: A Journey of Self-Discovery. Dimension Books. ISBN 978-0871932143. Check date values in: |year= (help)
  • Daniels, David (Updated and Revised 2009). The Essential Enneagram: Test and Self-Discovery Guide. HarperOne. ISBN 0-06-251676-0. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help); Check date values in: |year= (help)
  • Goldberg, Michael J. (1999). 9 Ways of Working. Marlowe & Company. ISBN 1-56924-688-2.
  • Hurley, Kathleen V. (1993). My Best Self: Using the Enneagram to Free the Soul. HarperOne. ISBN 85-7272-066-9.
  • Ichazo, Oscar (1982). Interviews with Oscar Ichazo. Arica Press. ISBN 0916554023.
  • Maitri, Sandra (2001). The Spiritual Dimension of the Enneagram: Nine Faces of the Soul. Tarcher. ISBN 1-58542-081-6.
  • Maitri, Sandra (2005). The Enneagram of Passions and Virtues: Finding the Way Home. Tarcher. ISBN 1-58542-406-4.
  • Naranjo, Claudio (1990). Character and Neurosis. Gateway Books & Tapes. ISBN 0-89556-066-6.
  • Naranjo, Claudio (1990). Ennea-type Structures: Self-Analysis for the Seeker. Gateway Books & Tapes. ISBN 978-0895560636.
  • Naranjo, Claudio (1995). Enneatypes and Psychotherapy. Gateway Books & Tapes. ISBN 0934252475.
  • Naranjo, Claudio (1997). Transformation Through Insight: Enneatypes in Life. Hohm Press. ISBN 0934252734.
  • Palmer, Helen (1988). The Enneagram: Understanding Yourself and the Others in Your Life. Harper & Row. ISBN 0062506730.
  • Palmer, Helen (1996). The Enneagram in Love and Work: Understanding your Intimate and Business Relationships. HarperOne. ISBN 0-06-250721-4.
  • Riso, Don Richard (1996). Personality Types. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 978-0395798676. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  • Riso, Don Richard (1999). Wisdom of the Enneagram. Bantam. ISBN 0553378201. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  • Rohr, Richard (2001). The Enneagram: A Christian Perspective. Crossroad. ISBN 0-8245-1950-7.
  • Wagele, Elizabeth (1994). The Enneagram Made Easy. HarperOne. ISBN 0-06-251026-6. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  • Wagele, Elizabeth (1995). Are You My Type, Am I Yours? : Relationships Made Easy Through The Enneagram. HarperOne. ISBN 006251248X. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  • Wagele, Elizabeth (1997). The Enneagram of Parenting: The 9 Types of Children and How to Raise Them Successfully. HarperOne. ISBN 0062514555.
  • Wagele, Elizabeth (2007). Finding the Birthday Cake; Helping Children Raise Their Self-Esteem (An Enneagram book for children). New Horizon Press. ISBN 978-0-88282-277-8.
  • Wagele, Elizabeth (2010). The Career Within You. HarperOne. ISBN 978-0-06-171861-8. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  • Riso, Don Richard (2000). Understanding the Enneagram; the practical guide to personality types. Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-61800415-7. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

المصادر

  1. ^ Maitri, The Spiritual Dimension of the Enneagram
  2. ^ Riso, Personality Types
  3. ^ Naranjo, Transformation Through Insight
  4. ^ Daniels, The Essential Enneagram, p. 1
  5. ^ http://www.internationalenneagram.org/intro/index.html
  6. ^ Palmer, The Enneagram, p.36
  7. ^ Wagele, Enneagram Made Easy, pp.1–11
  8. ^ Palmer, The Enneagram, Understanding Yourself and the Others in Your Life, p.xii
  9. ^ Maitri, The Spiritual Dimension of the Enneagram, pp.4-5
  10. ^ Riso, Wisdom of the Enneagram, p.24
  11. ^ Daniels, The Essential Enneagram
  12. ^ Baron, Renee. What Type Am I: Discover Who You Really Are. p. 162.
  13. ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح خ د ذ Riso, Don Richard (author) and Hudson, Ross (editor). Understanding the Enneagram: The Practical Guide to Personality Types. p. 18.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link) Revised edition
  14. ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح خ د ذ ر ز س ش ص ض ط ظ ع Riso, Don Richard (author) and Hudson, Ross (editor). Understanding the Enneagram: The Practical Guide to Personality Types. p. 39.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link) Revised edition
  15. ^ أ ب ت ث Staff (1998). "Enneagram Type One". The Enneagram Institute. Retrieved 2009-08-19. From Wisdom of the Enneagram.
  16. ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح خ د ذ Riso, Don Richard (author) and Hudson, Ross (editor). Understanding the Enneagram: The Practical Guide to Personality Types. p. 38.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link) Revised edition
  17. ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح خ د ذ Riso, Don Richard (author) and Hudson, Ross (editor). Understanding the Enneagram: The Practical Guide to Personality Types. p. 38.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link) Revised edition.
  18. ^ أ ب ت ث ج Staff (1998). "Enneagram Type Two". The Enneagram Institute. Retrieved 2009-08-19. From Wisdom of the Enneagram.
  19. ^ أ ب ت ث Staff (1998). "Enneagram Type Three". The Enneagram Institute. Retrieved 2009-08-19. From Wisdom of the Enneagram.
  20. ^ أ ب Staff (1998). "Enneagram Type Four". The Enneagram Institute. Retrieved 2009-08-19. From Wisdom of the Enneagram.
  21. ^ أ ب ت ث Staff (1998). "Enneagram Type Five". The Enneagram Institute. Retrieved 2009-08-19. From Wisdom of the Enneagram.
  22. ^ أ ب Staff (1998). "Enneagram Type Six". The Enneagram Institute. Retrieved 2009-08-19. From Wisdom of the Enneagram.
  23. ^ أ ب Staff (1998). "Enneagram Type Seven". The Enneagram Institute. Retrieved 2009-08-19. From Wisdom of the Enneagram.
  24. ^ أ ب Staff (1998). "Enneagram Type Eight". The Enneagram Institute. Retrieved 2009-08-19. From Wisdom of the Enneagram.
  25. ^ أ ب ت Staff (1998). "Enneagram Type Nine". The Enneagram Institute. Retrieved 2009-08-19. From Wisdom of the Enneagram.

وصلات خارجية