الفرق بين المراجعتين ل"اوسلو"

ط (robot Adding: be:Осла)
 
(24 مراجعة متوسطة بواسطة 7 مستخدمين غير معروضة)
سطر 1: سطر 1:
[[صورة:Oslo port.jpg|thumb|منظر للعاصمة ]]
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{|align=left
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|{{Infobox settlement
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|official_name              = أوسلو
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|native_name = Oslo
 +
|settlement_type            = [[عاصمة]]، [[مقاطعات النرويج|مقاطعة]] و[[بلديات النرويج|بلدية]]
 +
| image_skyline                  = {{multiple image
 +
|border=infobox
 +
|total_width=310
 +
|perrow=1/2/1/2
 +
|image1 = Enerhaugen med St. Hallvard kirke.jpg
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|image2 = Victoria Terrasse.jpg
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|image3 = Oslo Opera Barcode 2014 2.JPG
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|image4 = 14-09-02-oslo-RalfR-271.jpg
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|image5 = Jernbanetorget Oslo Norway Clarion Hotel Royal Christiania Oslo City Byporten shopping 2016-11-30.jpg
 +
|image6 = View from siloen.jpg
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}}
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| image_caption                  = <br>{{small|'''من اليسار إلى اليمين، من أعلى:''' [[Enerhaugen]], [[Victoria Terrasse]], [[Oslo Opera House|Opera House]] with [[Bjørvika|Bjørvika Barcode]], [[Tjuvholmen]] with [[Oslo City Hall|City Hall]], [[Jernbanetorget]] with [[Oslo City]], and [[Grünerløkka]]}}
 +
|image_flag                = Flag of Oslo.svg
 +
|image_blank_emblem        = Oslo komm.svg
 +
|blank_emblem_type          = Seal
 +
|shield_size                =
 +
|mapsize                    = 230px
 +
|map_caption                = Location of Oslo in Norway
 +
|pushpin_map                = Norway#Europe
 +
|pushpin_relief            = 1
 +
|coordinates                = {{coord|59|55|0|N|10|44|0|E|region:NO-03|display=inline,title}}
 +
|subdivision_type          = البلد
 +
|subdivision_name          = [[النرويج]]
 +
|subdivision_type1          = [[Districts of Norway|District]]
 +
|subdivision_name1          = [[Eastern Norway|Østlandet]]
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|subdivision_type2          = [[Counties of Norway|County]]
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|subdivision_name2          = Oslo
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|subdivision_type3          = [[List of municipalities of Norway|Municipality]]
 +
|subdivision_name3          =
 +
|leader_title              = [[List of mayors of Oslo|Mayor]]
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|leader_name                = [[Marianne Borgen]] ([[Socialist Left Party (Norway)|SV]])
 +
|leader_title1              = [[Governing Mayor of Oslo|Governing mayor]]
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|leader_name1              = [[Raymond Johansen]] ([[Labour Party (Norway)|AP]])
 +
|established_title          = Established
 +
|established_date          = 1048
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|area_footnotes            = <ref name=AreaStats>{{cite web|title=Arealstatistikk for Norge|url=http://kartverket.no/Kunnskap/Fakta-om-Norge/Arealstatistikk/Oversikt/|website=Kartverket.no|publisher=Kartverket|accessdate=13 October 2015|date=16 October 2014|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160419002302/http://kartverket.no/kunnskap/fakta-om-norge/Arealstatistikk/Oversikt/|archivedate=19 April 2016|df=dmy-all}}</ref>
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|area_total_km2            = 480.76
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|area_land_km2              = 454.08
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|area_water_km2            = 26.68
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|elevation_m                = 23
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|elevation_footnotes        = {{Citation needed|reason=No reference given, not in the Kartverket.no arealstatistikk.|date=November 2017}}
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|population_footnotes      = <ref name="Stats2016 a">{{cite web |url=http://www.ssb.no/befolkning/statistikker/folkemengde/aar-per-1-januar/2016-02-19?fane=tabell&sort=nummer&tabell=256001 |title=Population, 1 January 2016 |date=19 February 2016 |work=Statistics Norway |accessdate=28 March 2016}}</ref><ref name="Stats2015 b">{{cite web |url=http://www.ssb.no/en/befolkning/statistikker/beftett/aar/2015-04-09?fane=tabell&sort=nummer&tabell=222371 |title=Population and land area in urban settlements, 1 January 2014 |date=9 April 2015 |work=Statistics Norway |accessdate=6 September 2015}}</ref><ref name="Pop2015Q2">{{cite web|title=Population and population changes, Q2 2015|url=http://www.ssb.no/en/befolkning/statistikker/folkendrkv/kvartal/2015-08-20?fane=tabell&sort=nummer&tabell=236795|publisher=Statistics Norway|accessdate=13 October 2015|date=20 August 2015}}</ref>
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|population_as_of          = 1 January 2018
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|population_total          = 673,469
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|population_density_km2      = auto
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|population_urban          = 975,744
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|population_density_urban_km2 = auto
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|population_metro          = 1,588,457
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|population_metro_footnotes = <ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.regjeringen.no/no/dokumenter/stmeld-nr-31-2002-2003-/id402979/sec1|title=St.meld. nr. 31 (2002-2003)|last=regionaldepartementet|first=Kommunal- og|date=9 May 2003|website=Regjeringen.no|language=no|access-date=22 December 2017}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.ssb.no/befolkning/statistikker/folkemengde/aar-per-1-januar/2017-02-23|title=Folketalet ved nyttår var 5 258 000|work=ssb.no|access-date=22 December 2017|language=nn-NO}}</ref>
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<!-- demographics (section 1) -->
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|demographics_type1        = أكبر جماعات مهاجرين
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|demographics1_footnotes    = <ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.ssb.no/en/befolkning/statistikker/innvbef|title=
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Immigrants and Norwegian-born to immigrant parents, 1 January 2017
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|publisher=Statistics Norway|accessdate=2 June 2017}}</ref>{{refn|As of 1 January 2017. Includes immigrants and children of two immigrants. Does not include children of one immigrant, or grandchildren, great grandchildren etc. of immigrants. No statistic exists which accounts for ethnicity or race. The share of the population which was not counted as immigrant or as children of two immigrants was 67.2%.|group=note}}
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|demographics1_title1      = [[Pakistani people|Pakistani]]
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|demographics1_info1        = 3.5%
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|demographics1_title2      = [[Poles|Polish]]
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|demographics1_info2        = 2.5%
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|demographics1_title3      = [[Somali people|Somali]]
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|demographics1_info3        = 2.3%
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|demographics1_title4      = [[Swedes|Swedish]]
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|demographics1_info4        = 2.0%
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|demographics1_title5      = [[Iraqi people|Iraqi]] (Kurdish & Arab)
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|demographics1_info5        = 1.2%
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|demographics1_title6      = [[Demographics of Sri Lanka|Sri Lankan]]
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|demographics1_info6        = 1.1%
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|demographics1_title7      = [[Moroccan people|Moroccan]]
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|demographics1_info7        = 1.0%
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|timezone                  = [[Central European Time|CET]]
 +
|utc_offset                = +1
 +
|timezone_DST              = [[Central European Summer Time|CEST]]
 +
|utc_offset_DST            = +2
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|postal_code_type          = Postal code
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|postal_code                = 0001 – 1299 <ref>{{cite web|url=http://adressesok.posten.no/nb/postal_codes/search?utf8=%E2%9C%93&q=oslo|title=Finn postnummer og adresser i Norge og utlandet|publisher=}}</ref>
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|area_code                  = (+47) 00
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|website                    = {{URL|http://www.oslo.kommune.no}}
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|motto                      = ''Unanimiter et constanter'' <small>(Latin) <br>"United and constant"</small>
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}}
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|-
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|{{Infobox kommune
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|name        = Oslo
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|coatofarms  = Oslo komm.svg
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|county      = Oslo
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|map_caption = أوسلو تحيط بها مقاطعة آكرزهوس
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|language    = Neutral
 +
|idnumber    = 0301
 +
}}
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|}
  
''' أوسلو''' هي عاصمة [[النروج]] و أكبر مدنها. يبلغ عدد سكانها 529,846 نسمة.
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'''Oslo''' ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|ɒ|z|l|oʊ}} {{respell|OZ|loh}};<ref>{{cite web|url=http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/oslo|title=dictionary.com|accessdate=6 August 2011}}</ref> {{IPA-no|²ʊʂlʊ|lang|Oslo.ogg}}, <small>rarely</small> {{IPA-no|²ʊslʊ, ˈʊʂlʊ|}}) is the [[Capital city|capital]] and [[List of towns and cities in Norway|most populous city]] of [[Norway]]. It constitutes both a [[Counties of Norway|county]] and a [[Municipalities of Norway|municipality]]. Founded in the year 1040 as '''Ánslo''', and established as a [[kjobstad|''kaupstad'']] or trading place in 1048 by [[Harald Hardrada]], the city was elevated to a [[diocese of Oslo|bishopric]] in 1070 and a capital under [[Haakon V of Norway]] around 1300. [[Personal union]]s with Denmark from [[Kalmar Union|1397 to 1523]] and again from [[Denmark–Norway|1536 to 1814]] reduced its influence, and with Sweden from [[Union between Sweden and Norway|1814 to 1905]] it functioned as a co-official capital. After being destroyed by a fire in 1624, during the reign of [[Christian IV of Denmark|King Christian IV]], a new city was built closer to [[Akershus Fortress]] and named '''Christiania''' in the king's honour. It was established as a [[List of municipalities of Norway|municipality]] (''[[formannskapsdistrikt]]'') on 1 January 1838. The city's name was spelled '''Kristiania''' between 1877 and 1897 by state and municipal authorities, respectively. In 1925 the city was renamed Oslo.
  
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Oslo is the [[Economy of Norway|economic]] and [[Politics of Norway|governmental]] centre of Norway. The city is also a hub of Norwegian trade, banking, industry and shipping. It is an important centre for maritime industries and maritime trade in Europe. The city is home to many companies within the maritime sector, some of which are among the world's largest shipping companies, shipbrokers and maritime insurance brokers. Oslo is a pilot city of the [[Council of Europe]] and the [[European Commission]] intercultural cities programme.
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Oslo is considered a [[global city]] and was ranked "Beta World City" in studies carried out by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network in 2008.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.lboro.ac.uk/gawc/world2008t.html |title=GaWC – The World According to GaWC 2008 |publisher=Lboro.ac.uk |date=13 April 2010 |accessdate=23 July 2011}}</ref> It was ranked number one in terms of quality of life among European large cities in the European Cities of the Future 2012 report by ''fDi'' magazine.<ref name="fdiintelligence.com">{{cite web|author=Rachel Craig |url=http://www.fdiintelligence.com/Locations/Europe/European-Cities-and-Regions-of-the-Future-2012-13 |title=European Cities and Regions of the Future 2012/13 |publisher=fDiIntelligence.com |date=13 February 2012 |accessdate=12 March 2013}}</ref> A survey conducted by [[ECA International]] in 2011 placed Oslo as the second most expensive city in the world for living expenses after [[Tokyo]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.eca-international.com/news/press_releases/7355/Sydney_rockets_up_the_list_of_the_world_s_most_expensive_cities |title=Sydney rockets up the list of the world's most expensive cities |publisher=[[ECA International]] |date=8 June 2011 |accessdate=10 July 2011 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20111003163654/http://www.eca-international.com/news/press_releases/7355/Sydney_rockets_up_the_list_of_the_world_s_most_expensive_cities |archivedate=3 October 2011 }}</ref> In 2013 Oslo tied with the Australian city of [[Melbourne]] as the fourth most expensive city in the world, according to the [[Economist Intelligence Unit]] (EIU)'s Worldwide Cost of Living study.<ref>{{cite news|title=The world's most expensive cities|url=https://www.theguardian.com/cities/datablog/2014/feb/14/most-expensive-cities|accessdate=23 February 2014|newspaper=The Guardian|date=14 February 2014|author=George Arnett|author2=Chris Michael}}</ref>
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As of 1 July 2017, the municipality of Oslo had a population of 672,061, while the population of the city's [[urban area]] of 3 December 2018 was 1,000,467.<ref name="Pop2015Q2" /><ref name="OneMil">{{cite news|title=Nå bor det over én million i Stor-Oslo|url=https://www.aftenposten.no/osloby/i/21763y/Na-bor-det-over-n-million-i-Stor-Oslo|accessdate=11 December 2018|newspaper=Aftenposten|date=2 December 2018|author=Pål Vegard Hagesæther}}</ref> The [[metropolitan area]] had an estimated population of 1.71 million.<ref name="regjeringen2010">{{cite web |url=https://www.ssb.no/a/samfunnsspeilet/utg/201005/02/tab-2010-12-06-01.html |title=Demografi innenfor ti mil fra Oslo. 1. januar 2010 og endringer 2000–2009. Antall og prosent |accessdate=15 January 2016 |trans-title=Demographics within a hundred kilometers from Oslo. 1 January 2010 and changes 2000–2009. Number and percent |work=Statistics Norway |language=Norwegian}}</ref> The population was increasing at record rates during the early 2000s, making it the fastest growing major [[Metropolitan area|city]] in Europe at the time.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.aftenposten.no/nyheter/oslo/article4070772.ece |title=Oslo europamester i vekst – Nyheter – Oslo |publisher=Aftenposten.no |accessdate=3 June 2011 |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110501191333/http://www.aftenposten.no/nyheter/oslo/article4070772.ece |archivedate=1 May 2011}}</ref> This growth stems for the most part from international [[Immigration to Norway|immigration]] and related high birth rates, but also from intra-national migration. The immigrant population in the city is growing somewhat faster than the [[Norwegians|Norwegian]] population,<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.aftenposten.no/nyheter/oslo/article3424942.ece |title=Ola og Kari flytter fra innvandrerne – Nyheter – Oslo |publisher=Aftenposten.no |accessdate=3 June 2011 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110604155245/http://www.aftenposten.no/nyheter/oslo/article3424942.ece |archivedate=4 June 2011 |df=dmy-all }}</ref> and in the city proper this is now more than 25% of the total if people with immigrant parents are included.<ref name="Immigration">{{cite web|url=http://www.ssb.no/english/subjects/00/00/10/innvandring_en/ |title=Immigration and immigrants |publisher=Ssb.no |date=1 January 2009 |accessdate=29 August 2009 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20090902060458/http://www.ssb.no/english/subjects/00/00/10/innvandring_en/ |archivedate=2 September 2009 }}</ref>
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==معلومات عامة==
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[[صورة:Christiania Norway in 1814 by MK Tholstrup.jpg|تصغير|يمين|Christiania in July of 1814, as seen from Ekeberg.]]
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يبلغ عدد سكان النرويج 560.484 وذلك حسب تقديرات [[2008]].<ref>[http://www.ssb.no/folkemengde_en/arkiv/tab-2007-02-22-05-en.html Table 5 Population, by sex, age and municipality. 1 January 2007<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> وقد إمتدت المنطقة الحضرية حول البلاد لتصل المساحة الكلية لمدينة أوسلو 839.423<ref> [http://www.ssb.no/english/subjects/02/01/10/beftett_en/tab-2006-07-05-01-en.html Statistics from the SSB]</ref>, وبإضافة المساحة الجغرافية فإننا نتحدث عن [[إقليم أوسلو]] ، والذي يمتد خلف حدود المدينة ، ويصل عدد سكانه 1.121.020 مواطن. وذلك حسب تقديرات [[2005]] ، وتصل مساحة الأرض 6.920 كم2.[http://www.ssb.no]
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[[صورة:HanskenpaChristianiaTorv.jpg|تصغير|يمين|Hansken Sculpture and Theatre Museum, Christiania Torv.]]
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<br clear=right>
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==التسمية==
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تعرضت الكثر من المناقشات لتفسير معنى كلمة أوسلو. ورجح أنها جاءت من كلمة Old Norse وتعني النرويجي القديمة ، وكان إسم لحقل كبير حيث إستوطن السكان الأوائل للبلدة.
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[[صورة:Oslo port.jpg|تصغير|يمين|المنظر من حصن آكرزهوس باتجاه الفيورد.]]
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<br clear=right>
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==التاريخ==
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[[صورة:Oslo mot Grefsentoppen fra Ekeberg.jpg|تصغير|يمين|منظر من إكبرگ باتجاه گرفسن]]
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==الجغرافيا والمناخ==
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{{-}}
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{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center"
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! الشهر
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! يناير
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! فبراير
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! مارس
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! إبريل
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! مايو
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! يونيو
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! يوليو
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! أغسطس
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! سبتمبر
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! أكتوبر
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! نوفمبر
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! ديسمبر
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|-
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! العظمى المتوسطة °C (°F)
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| -1.8 (29)
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| -0.9 (30)
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| 3.5 (38)
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| 9.1 (49)
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| 15.8 (60)
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| 20.4 (69)
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| 21.5 (71)
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| 20.1 (68)
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| 15.1 (59)
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| 9.3 (49)
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| 3.2 (38)
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| -0.5 (31)
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|-
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! الصغرى المتوسطة °C (°F)
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| -6.8 (20)
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| -6.8 (20)
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| -3.3 (26)
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| 0.8 (33)
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| 6.5 (44)
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| 10.6 (51)
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| 12.2 (54)
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| 11.3 (52)
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| 7.5 (46)
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| 3.8 (39)
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| -1.5 (29)
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| -5.6 (22)
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|-
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| colspan="14" style="text-align:center;font-size:90%;"|''Source: [http://www.worldweather.org/008/c00021.htm World Weather Information Service] All data is for Oslo - Blindern (94 m.s.l.)
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|}
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==الحكومة والسياسية==
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أوسلو هي عاصمة [[النرويج]] ولذلك فهي تعتبر مقر للحكومة في البلاد ، حيث تضم معظم المكاتب الحكومية ، بما في ذلك مقر [[رئيس وزراء النرويج|رئيس الوزراء]] ، ومبنى البرلمان.
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[[صورة:Oslo from holmenkollen.jpg|تصغير|View of Oslo looking south from Holmenkollen, directly facing Nesodden.]]
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==التقسيمات الإدارية==
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<br clear-all>
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# [[Gamle Oslo]]
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# [[Grünerløkka]]
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# [[Sagene]]
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# [[St. Hanshaugen]]
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# [[Frogner]]
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# [[Ullern]]
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# [[Vestre Aker]]
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# [[Nordre Aker]]
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# [[Bjerke]]
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# [[Grorud]]
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# [[Stovner]]
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# [[Alna]]
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# [[Østensjø]]
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# [[Nordstrand]]
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# [[Søndre Nordstrand]]
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# [[Sentrum, Oslo|Sentrum]]
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# [[Marka, Oslo|Marka]]
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==المعالم الرئيسية==
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{{wrapper}}
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|[[Image:Akershus castle Oslo.jpg|يسار|thumb|[[Akershus Fortress]].]]
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|-
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|[[Image:OsloNationalTeatret.jpg|يسار|thumb|]]
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|-
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|[[Image:Slottet oslo 2.jpg|يسار|thumb| [[الأماكن الملكية في أوسلو|الأماكن الملكية]].]]
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|-
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|[[Image:Oslo-VigelandPark-20050726.JPG|يسار|thumb|[[حديقة فيجلاند]].]]
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|-
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|[[Image:Karl johan statue 1.jpg|thumb|الملك[[كارل جون]].]]
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|-
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|[[Image:Vikingskiphuset.jpg|يسار|thumb|[[Viking Ship Museum (Oslo)|Vikingship Museum at Bygdøy]].]]
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|}
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* [[دار الأوبرا الوطنية (أوسلو)|الأوبرا الوطنية الجديدة]]
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* [[Akershus Fortress|Akershus Castle and Fortress]]
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* [[Norsk Folkemuseum]], the Norwegian Museum of Cultural History at [[Bygdøy]], with a large [[open air museum]]
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* The Armed Forces Museum
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* The [[Oslo City Hall|City Hall]], where the annual [[Nobel Peace Prize]] ceremony is held
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* The [[Nobel Peace Center]], [[Aker brygge]]
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* The [[New National Opera House (Oslo)|New National Opera House]], [[Bjørvika]]
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* The [[Historical Museum]]
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* The Museum of Modern Art
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* The [[Holmenkollen ski jump]], arena of the [[1952 Winter Olympics]] and the [[Holmenkollen ski festival]], [[Holmenkollen]]
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* The [[Holmenkollen Ski Museum]], [[Holmenkollen]]
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* The [[Kon-Tiki]] Museum, [[Bygdøy]]
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* The [[Munch Museum]], [[Tøyen]]
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* The river [[Akerselva]]
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* The [[National Gallery, Oslo|National Gallery]]
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* The Norwegian Maritime Museum, including ''[[Gjøa]]'', [[Bygdøy]]
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* The [[Fram Museum]], exhibiting the ship ''[[Fram]]'', [[Bygdøy]]
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* The [[Oslo City Museum]], at [[Frogner Manor]]
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* The [[Royal Palace, Oslo|Royal Palace]]
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* The [[Henie-Onstad Art Centre]], Høvikodden in [[Bærum]]
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* [[Oslo Cathedral]]
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* [[Norwegian Museum of Science and Technology]]
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* The Zoological Museum [http://www.nhm.uio.no/zoomus/] , [[Tøyen]]
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* The Botanical garden [http://www.nhm.uio.no/hagen/index.htm] , [[Tøyen]]
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* The [[Storting]], parliament building
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* The [[Vigeland Park]] in the [[Frogner]] park (''Frognerparken'')
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* The [[Viking Ship Museum (Oslo)|Viking Ship Museum]], displaying ships from ''[[Gokstad Ship|Gokstad]]'', ''[[Oseberg]]'' and ''[[Tune ship|Tune]]'' at [[Bygdøy]]
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* [[Tryvannstårnet]]
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* [[Hovedøya]]
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* [[Ullevål Hageby]]
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* The islands of the [[Oslofjord]]
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==الإقتصاد==
 +
تعتبر أوسلو مركز إقتصادي هام في [[أوروبا]] في مجال قطاع النقل البحري وتعتبر كذلك موطنا لكثير من الشركات وتضم حوالي 8.500 موظف في هذا المجال ، وذلك من خلال 980 شركة شحن عالمية ، وشركات صناعة سفن وشركات تأمين.<ref>[http://81.93.161.140/archive/download_eng/01/01/Marit002.pdf Oslo Teknopol Mal<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
 +
 +
==التوزيع السكاني==
 +
يوجد نسبة 19.6% من عدد سكان أوسلو من المهاجرين من خارج البلاد. منهم 20.036 من [[باكستان]] ، ونسبة 7.128 من [[سريلانكا]] و [[التاميل]] ، ويشكلا الغالبية العظمى من المهاجرين.
 +
الفئة الأخرى من السكان من [[يوغسلافيا]] و [[فيتنام]] و [[الفلبين]] و [[تركيا]] و [[الصومال]] و [[العراق]] و [[المغرب]]. [http://www.ssb.no/emner/02/01/10/innvbef] [http://nyhuus.deich.folkebibl.no/deichman/dfb/sprakland.html]
 +
 +
==التاريخ السكاني==
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
! السنة
 +
! عدد السكان
 +
|-
 +
| align="center" | 1801|| align="center" | 9,500
 +
|-
 +
| align="center" | 1825|| align="center" | 15,400
 +
|-
 +
| align="center" | 1855 || align="center" | 31,700
 +
|-
 +
| align="center" | 1875|| align="center" | 76,900
 +
|-
 +
| align="center" | 1900 || align="center" |227,900
 +
|-
 +
| align="center" | 1925||align="center" |255,700
 +
|-
 +
| align="center" | 1951 ||align="center" |434,365
 +
|-
 +
| align="center" | 1960 ||align="center" |471,511
 +
|-м
 +
| align="center" | 1970||align="center" |487,363
 +
|-
 +
| align="center" | 1980||align="center" |454,872
 +
|-
 +
| align="center" | 1990||align="center" |458,364
 +
|-
 +
| align="center" | 2000||align="center" |507,467
 +
|-
 +
| align="center" | 2002||align="center" |529,407
 +
|-
 +
| align="center" | 2006||align="center" |538,411
 +
|-
 +
| align="center" | 2008||align="center" |560,484
 +
|}
 +
<div class="references-small">
 +
See also:
 +
*[http://www.ssb.no/english/subjects/02/02/folkendrhist_en/tables/tab/0301.html]
 +
*[http://www.ssb.no/folkendrkv_en/2004k4/hittil02-en.html]</div>
 +
 +
===المجتمعات المدنية===
 +
*1999: 763,957
 +
*2005: 811,688
 +
*2006: 825,105<ref> [http://www.ssb.no/english/subjects/02/01/10/beftett_en/tab-2006-07-05-01-en.html Statistics from the SSB]</ref><ref>[http://www.ssb.no/english/subjects/02/01/10/beftett_en/ Population and area in urban settlements<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref><ref>[http://www.ssb.no/english/subjects/02/01/10/beftett_en/arkiv/art-2000-12-18-01-en.html Population and land area in urban settlements, 1 January 1999. Revised figures - One in four lives in the four largest urban areas<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
 +
*2007: 839,423<ref>[http://www.ssb.no/english/subjects/02/01/10/beftett_en/tab-2007-06-07-01-en.html Table 1 Urban settlements. Population and area, by municipality. 1 January 2007<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
 +
 +
==المعاهد والتعليم العالي==
 +
* [[University of Oslo]] (Universitetet i Oslo)
 +
* [[Oslo University College]] (Høgskolen i Oslo)
 +
* [[Norwegian School of Management]] (Handelshøyskolen BI)
 +
* [[Norwegian School of Information Technology]] (Norges Informasjonsteknologiske Høyskole)
 +
* [[Oslo School of Architecture and Design]] (Arkitektur- og designhøgskolen i Oslo)
 +
* [[Norwegian University of Sport and Physical Education]] (Norges idrettshøgskole)<ref>[http://www.nih.no/ Norges idrettshøgskole - forskning og høyere utdanning innenfor idrettsvitenskap - NIH<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
 +
* [[Norwegian Academy of Music]] (Norges musikkhøgskole)
 +
* [[MF Norwegian School of Theology]] (Det teologiske Menighetsfakultet - MF)
 +
* [[Oslo National Academy of the Arts]] (Kunsthøgskolen i Oslo KHIO)<ref>[http://www.khio.no/ Kunsthøgskolen i Oslo<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
 +
* [[Norwegian University of Life Sciences]] (Universitetet for Miljø og Biovitenskap-UMB) located right outside of Oslo<ref>[http://www.umb.no/ Universitetet for miljø- og biovitenskap - UMB<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
 +
* [[Norwegian Military Academy]] (Krigsskolen)
 +
* [[Norwegian School of Veterinary Science]] (Norges Veterinærhøgskole)<ref>[http://www.veths.no/ Internett - Norges veterinærhøgskole<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
 +
* [[Oslo Academy of Fine Arts]] (Statens kunstakademi)<ref>[http://www.ska-wiki.no/ Ska-Wiki - Ska-Wiki<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
 +
Oslo now has over 50 schools, colleges and universities in itself alone.
 +
 +
==النقل==
 +
{{wrapper}}
 +
|[[Image:OslArrHall2.jpg|thumb|250px|[[Oslo Airport, Gardermoen]]]]
 +
|-
 +
|[[Image:OsloTram.jpg|thumb|250px|[[Oslotrikken]]]]
 +
|-
 +
|[[Image:Sporveisbussene 18jun2005.jpg|thumb|Oslo City Bus.|250px]]
 +
|}
 +
===النقل الجوي===
 +
 +
===النقل البحري===
 +
 +
===السكك الحديدية===
 +
 +
=== النقل العام===
 +
 +
=== الطرق===
 +
 +
==الإعلام==
 +
 +
==الرياضة==
 +
ergehnhbvrhbnmtkø-åæ.u,ytkrjthrsbgfvdcsvfbk,jhlø-opl8uikmjynhtbgrvdcwxsq
 +
 +
==مدن شقيقة==
 +
ترتبط مدينة أوسلو بعلاقات مع المدن التالية:<ref name="int_coop">[http://www.oslo.kommune.no/the_city_of_oslo/international_cooperation/ Partners - Oslo kommune<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
 +
*{{flagicon|السويد}} [[كوتنبرج]], [[السويد]]
 +
*{{flagicon|ألمانيا}} [[Schleswig-Holstein]], [[ألمانيا]]
 +
*{{flagicon|الصين}} [[شنجهاي]], [[الصين]]
 +
*{{flagicon|روسيا}} [[سانت بترسبرج]], [[روسيا]]
 +
*{{flagicon|ليتوانيا}} [[Vilnius]], [[ليتوانيا]]
 +
*{{flagicon|بولندا}} [[وارسو]], [[بولندا]]
 +
 +
==وصلات خارجية==
 +
{{commons|Oslo}}
 +
* [http://www.oslo.kommune.no/ City of Oslo: Official website]
 +
* [http://www.visitoslo.com/ Official Travel and Visitors Guide to Oslo]
 +
* [http://www.tv-traveller.com/index_files/page0002.htm Traveller - A short clip about Oslo]
 +
* {{Wikitravel}}
 +
 +
==المصادر==
 +
{{Reflist|30em}}
 +
{{Reflist|group=note}}
 +
 +
{{Navboxes|list=
 +
{{Municipalities in Norway}}
 +
{{Oslo}}
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{{Most populous urban areas of Norway}}
 +
{{Most populous metropolitan areas in Norway}}
 +
{{Counties of Norway}}
 +
{{50 most populous Nordic urban settlements}}
 +
{{List of European capitals by region}}
 +
{{Eurovision Song Contest}}
 +
{{Olympic Winter Games Host Cities}}
 +
|}}
  
{{بذرة جغرافيا أوروبا}}
 
[[تصنيف:مدن النروج]]
 
 
[[تصنيف:عواصم أوروبا]]
 
[[تصنيف:عواصم أوروبا]]
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[[تصنيف:مدن النرويج]]
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[[تصنيف:مدن ساحلية]]
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[[تصنيف:أقاليم في النرويج]]
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[[تصنيف:مدن مضيفة لدورة الألعاب الأوليمبية الشتوية]]
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[[تصنيف:أوسلوا| ]]
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[[تصنيف:تأسيسات 1048]]
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[[تصنيف:تأسيسات القرن 11]]
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[[تصنيف:دورة ألعاب أوليمبية 1952]]
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[[تصنيف:مدن وبلدات النرويج]]
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[[Category:Counties of Norway]]
 +
[[Category:Populated coastal places in Norway]]
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[[Category:Populated places established in the 11th century]]
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[[Category:Port cities and towns in Norway]]
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[[Category:Port cities and towns of the North Sea]]
 +
[[Category:Viking Age populated places]]
 +
  
 +
[[am:ኦስሎ]]
 +
[[arc:ܐܘܣܠܘ]]
 
[[be:Осла]]
 
[[be:Осла]]
 
[[bg:Осло]]
 
[[bg:Осло]]
 +
[[bpy:ওসলো]]
 +
[[br:Oslo]]
 
[[bs:Oslo]]
 
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 +
[[co:Oslu]]
 
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 +
[[cy:Oslo]]
 
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سطر 20: سطر 396:
 
[[es:Oslo]]
 
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[[et:Oslo]]
 
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 +
[[eu:Oslo]]
 
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 +
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 +
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 +
[[hu:Oslo]]
 +
[[hy:Օսլո]]
 
[[ia:Oslo]]
 
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سطر 33: سطر 414:
 
[[it:Oslo]]
 
[[it:Oslo]]
 
[[ja:オスロ]]
 
[[ja:オスロ]]
 +
[[ka:ოსლო]]
 
[[ko:오슬로]]
 
[[ko:오슬로]]
 
[[kw:Oslo]]
 
[[kw:Oslo]]
سطر 43: سطر 425:
 
[[nn:Oslo]]
 
[[nn:Oslo]]
 
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 +
[[oc:Òslo]]
 
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 +
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 +
[[sc:Oslo]]
 
[[scn:Oslu]]
 
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[[se:Oslo]]
 
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سطر 53: سطر 438:
 
[[sk:Oslo]]
 
[[sk:Oslo]]
 
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[[sl:Oslo]]
 +
[[sq:Oslo]]
 
[[sr:Осло]]
 
[[sr:Осло]]
 
[[sv:Oslo]]
 
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 +
[[tg:Осло]]
 
[[th:ออสโล]]
 
[[th:ออสโล]]
 
[[tr:Oslo]]
 
[[tr:Oslo]]
 +
[[uk:Осло]]
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[[vi:Oslo]]
 
[[vo:Oslo]]
 
[[vo:Oslo]]
 
[[zh:奥斯陆]]
 
[[zh:奥斯陆]]

المراجعة الحالية بتاريخ 00:26، 13 يناير 2019

أوسلو

Oslo

من اليسار إلى اليمين، من أعلى: Enerhaugen, Victoria Terrasse, Opera House with Bjørvika Barcode, Tjuvholmen with City Hall, Jernbanetorget with Oslo City, and Grünerløkka
Flag of أوسلو
Flag
Official logo of أوسلو
Seal
الشعار الحادي: 
Unanimiter et constanter (Latin)
"United and constant"
خطأ لوا في وحدة:Location_map على السطر 485: Unable to find the specified location map definition: "Module:Location map/data/Norway" does not exist.Location of Oslo in Norway
الإحداثيات: 59°55′0″N 10°44′0″E / 59.91667°N 10.73333°E / 59.91667; 10.73333Coordinates: 59°55′0″N 10°44′0″E / 59.91667°N 10.73333°E / 59.91667; 10.73333
البلد النرويج
District Østlandet
County Oslo
Established 1048
الحكم
 • Mayor Marianne Borgen (SV)
 • Governing mayor Raymond Johansen (AP)
المساحة[1]
 • عاصمة، مقاطعة وبلدية 480٫76 كم² (185٫62 ميل²)
 • البر 454٫08 كم² (175٫32 ميل²)
 • الماء 26٫68 كم² (10٫30 ميل²)
الارتفاع[بحاجة لمصدر] 23 m (75 ft)
التعداد(1 January 2018)[2][3][4]
 • عاصمة، مقاطعة وبلدية 673٬469
 • الكثافة 1٬400/km2 (3٬600/sq mi)
 • الحضر 975٬744
 • العمرانية[5][6] 1٬588٬457
أكبر جماعات مهاجرين[7][note 1]
 • Pakistani 3.5%
 • Polish 2.5%
 • Somali 2.3%
 • Swedish 2.0%
 • Iraqi (Kurdish & Arab) 1.2%
 • Sri Lankan 1.1%
 • Moroccan 1.0%
منطقة التوقيت CET (التوقيت العالمي المنسق+1)
 • الصيفي CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 0001 – 1299 [8]
مفتاح الهاتف (+47) 00
الموقع الإلكتروني oslo.kommune.no
Oslo kommune
Coat of arms of Oslo kommune
Coat of arms
Official logo of Oslo kommune
Oslo ضمن
النرويج
أوسلو تحيط بها مقاطعة آكرزهوس
أوسلو تحيط بها مقاطعة آكرزهوس
البلد النرويج
المقاطعة Oslo
منطقة التوقيت CET (التوقيت العالمي المنسق+1)
 • الصيفي CEST (UTC+2)
ISO 3166 code NO-0301
صيغة اللغة الرسمية Neutral
بيانات من إحصائيات النرويج

Oslo ( /ˈɒzl/ OZ-loh;[9] Norwegian: [²ʊʂlʊ]  ( listen), rarely [²ʊslʊ, ˈʊʂlʊ]) is the capital and most populous city of Norway. It constitutes both a county and a municipality. Founded in the year 1040 as Ánslo, and established as a kaupstad or trading place in 1048 by Harald Hardrada, the city was elevated to a bishopric in 1070 and a capital under Haakon V of Norway around 1300. Personal unions with Denmark from 1397 to 1523 and again from 1536 to 1814 reduced its influence, and with Sweden from 1814 to 1905 it functioned as a co-official capital. After being destroyed by a fire in 1624, during the reign of King Christian IV, a new city was built closer to Akershus Fortress and named Christiania in the king's honour. It was established as a municipality (formannskapsdistrikt) on 1 January 1838. The city's name was spelled Kristiania between 1877 and 1897 by state and municipal authorities, respectively. In 1925 the city was renamed Oslo.

Oslo is the economic and governmental centre of Norway. The city is also a hub of Norwegian trade, banking, industry and shipping. It is an important centre for maritime industries and maritime trade in Europe. The city is home to many companies within the maritime sector, some of which are among the world's largest shipping companies, shipbrokers and maritime insurance brokers. Oslo is a pilot city of the Council of Europe and the European Commission intercultural cities programme.

Oslo is considered a global city and was ranked "Beta World City" in studies carried out by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network in 2008.[10] It was ranked number one in terms of quality of life among European large cities in the European Cities of the Future 2012 report by fDi magazine.[11] A survey conducted by ECA International in 2011 placed Oslo as the second most expensive city in the world for living expenses after Tokyo.[12] In 2013 Oslo tied with the Australian city of Melbourne as the fourth most expensive city in the world, according to the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU)'s Worldwide Cost of Living study.[13]

As of 1 July 2017, the municipality of Oslo had a population of 672,061, while the population of the city's urban area of 3 December 2018 was 1,000,467.[4][14] The metropolitan area had an estimated population of 1.71 million.[15] The population was increasing at record rates during the early 2000s, making it the fastest growing major city in Europe at the time.[16] This growth stems for the most part from international immigration and related high birth rates, but also from intra-national migration. The immigrant population in the city is growing somewhat faster than the Norwegian population,[17] and in the city proper this is now more than 25% of the total if people with immigrant parents are included.[18]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

معلومات عامة

Christiania in July of 1814, as seen from Ekeberg.

يبلغ عدد سكان النرويج 560.484 وذلك حسب تقديرات 2008.[19] وقد إمتدت المنطقة الحضرية حول البلاد لتصل المساحة الكلية لمدينة أوسلو 839.423[20], وبإضافة المساحة الجغرافية فإننا نتحدث عن إقليم أوسلو ، والذي يمتد خلف حدود المدينة ، ويصل عدد سكانه 1.121.020 مواطن. وذلك حسب تقديرات 2005 ، وتصل مساحة الأرض 6.920 كم2.[1]

Hansken Sculpture and Theatre Museum, Christiania Torv.



التسمية

تعرضت الكثر من المناقشات لتفسير معنى كلمة أوسلو. ورجح أنها جاءت من كلمة Old Norse وتعني النرويجي القديمة ، وكان إسم لحقل كبير حيث إستوطن السكان الأوائل للبلدة.

المنظر من حصن آكرزهوس باتجاه الفيورد.


التاريخ

منظر من إكبرگ باتجاه گرفسن

الجغرافيا والمناخ


الشهر يناير فبراير مارس إبريل مايو يونيو يوليو أغسطس سبتمبر أكتوبر نوفمبر ديسمبر
العظمى المتوسطة °C (°F) -1.8 (29) -0.9 (30) 3.5 (38) 9.1 (49) 15.8 (60) 20.4 (69) 21.5 (71) 20.1 (68) 15.1 (59) 9.3 (49) 3.2 (38) -0.5 (31)
الصغرى المتوسطة °C (°F) -6.8 (20) -6.8 (20) -3.3 (26) 0.8 (33) 6.5 (44) 10.6 (51) 12.2 (54) 11.3 (52) 7.5 (46) 3.8 (39) -1.5 (29) -5.6 (22)
Source: World Weather Information Service All data is for Oslo - Blindern (94 m.s.l.)

الحكومة والسياسية

أوسلو هي عاصمة النرويج ولذلك فهي تعتبر مقر للحكومة في البلاد ، حيث تضم معظم المكاتب الحكومية ، بما في ذلك مقر رئيس الوزراء ، ومبنى البرلمان.

View of Oslo looking south from Holmenkollen, directly facing Nesodden.

التقسيمات الإدارية


  1. Gamle Oslo
  2. Grünerløkka
  3. Sagene
  4. St. Hanshaugen
  5. Frogner
  6. Ullern
  7. Vestre Aker
  8. Nordre Aker
  9. Bjerke
  10. Grorud
  11. Stovner
  12. Alna
  13. Østensjø
  14. Nordstrand
  15. Søndre Nordstrand
  16. Sentrum
  17. Marka


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

المعالم الرئيسية

OsloNationalTeatret.jpg

الإقتصاد

تعتبر أوسلو مركز إقتصادي هام في أوروبا في مجال قطاع النقل البحري وتعتبر كذلك موطنا لكثير من الشركات وتضم حوالي 8.500 موظف في هذا المجال ، وذلك من خلال 980 شركة شحن عالمية ، وشركات صناعة سفن وشركات تأمين.[21]

التوزيع السكاني

يوجد نسبة 19.6% من عدد سكان أوسلو من المهاجرين من خارج البلاد. منهم 20.036 من باكستان ، ونسبة 7.128 من سريلانكا و التاميل ، ويشكلا الغالبية العظمى من المهاجرين. الفئة الأخرى من السكان من يوغسلافيا و فيتنام و الفلبين و تركيا و الصومال و العراق و المغرب. [4] [5]


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

التاريخ السكاني

السنة عدد السكان
1801 9,500
1825 15,400
1855 31,700
1875 76,900
1900 227,900
1925 255,700
1951 434,365
1960 471,511
1970 487,363
1980 454,872
1990 458,364
2000 507,467
2002 529,407
2006 538,411
2008 560,484

See also:

المجتمعات المدنية

المعاهد والتعليم العالي

Oslo now has over 50 schools, colleges and universities in itself alone.

النقل

Oslo City Bus.

النقل الجوي

النقل البحري

السكك الحديدية

النقل العام

الطرق

الإعلام

الرياضة

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مدن شقيقة

ترتبط مدينة أوسلو بعلاقات مع المدن التالية:[31]

وصلات خارجية

المصادر

  1. ^ "Arealstatistikk for Norge". Kartverket.no. Kartverket. 16 October 2014. Archived from the original on 19 April 2016. Retrieved 13 October 2015.
  2. ^ "Population, 1 January 2016". Statistics Norway. 19 February 2016. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
  3. ^ "Population and land area in urban settlements, 1 January 2014". Statistics Norway. 9 April 2015. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
  4. ^ أ ب "Population and population changes, Q2 2015". Statistics Norway. 20 August 2015. Retrieved 13 October 2015.
  5. ^ regionaldepartementet, Kommunal- og (9 May 2003). "St.meld. nr. 31 (2002-2003)". Regjeringen.no (in النرويجية). Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  6. ^ "Folketalet ved nyttår var 5 258 000". ssb.no (in النرويجية نينورسك). Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  7. ^ "Immigrants and Norwegian-born to immigrant parents, 1 January 2017". Statistics Norway. Retrieved 2 June 2017.
  8. ^ "Finn postnummer og adresser i Norge og utlandet".
  9. ^ "dictionary.com". Retrieved 6 August 2011.
  10. ^ "GaWC – The World According to GaWC 2008". Lboro.ac.uk. 13 April 2010. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
  11. ^ Rachel Craig (13 February 2012). "European Cities and Regions of the Future 2012/13". fDiIntelligence.com. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
  12. ^ "Sydney rockets up the list of the world's most expensive cities". ECA International. 8 June 2011. Archived from the original on 3 October 2011. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
  13. ^ George Arnett; Chris Michael (14 February 2014). "The world's most expensive cities". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
  14. ^ Pål Vegard Hagesæther (2 December 2018). "Nå bor det over én million i Stor-Oslo". Aftenposten. Retrieved 11 December 2018.
  15. ^ "Demografi innenfor ti mil fra Oslo. 1. januar 2010 og endringer 2000–2009. Antall og prosent" [Demographics within a hundred kilometers from Oslo. 1 January 2010 and changes 2000–2009. Number and percent]. Statistics Norway (in Norwegian). Retrieved 15 January 2016.CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link)
  16. ^ "Oslo europamester i vekst – Nyheter – Oslo". Aftenposten.no. Archived from the original on 1 May 2011. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
  17. ^ "Ola og Kari flytter fra innvandrerne – Nyheter – Oslo". Aftenposten.no. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
  18. ^ "Immigration and immigrants". Ssb.no. 1 January 2009. Archived from the original on 2 September 2009. Retrieved 29 August 2009.
  19. ^ Table 5 Population, by sex, age and municipality. 1 January 2007
  20. ^ Statistics from the SSB
  21. ^ Oslo Teknopol Mal
  22. ^ Statistics from the SSB
  23. ^ Population and area in urban settlements
  24. ^ Population and land area in urban settlements, 1 January 1999. Revised figures - One in four lives in the four largest urban areas
  25. ^ Table 1 Urban settlements. Population and area, by municipality. 1 January 2007
  26. ^ Norges idrettshøgskole - forskning og høyere utdanning innenfor idrettsvitenskap - NIH
  27. ^ Kunsthøgskolen i Oslo
  28. ^ Universitetet for miljø- og biovitenskap - UMB
  29. ^ Internett - Norges veterinærhøgskole
  30. ^ Ska-Wiki - Ska-Wiki
  31. ^ Partners - Oslo kommune
  1. ^ As of 1 January 2017. Includes immigrants and children of two immigrants. Does not include children of one immigrant, or grandchildren, great grandchildren etc. of immigrants. No statistic exists which accounts for ethnicity or race. The share of the population which was not counted as immigrant or as children of two immigrants was 67.2%.