|القرون:||القرن 19th - القرن 20th - القرن 21st|
|العقود:||1890s 1900s 1910s - 1920s - 1930s 1940s 1950s|
|السنوات:||1926 1927 1928 - 1929 - 1930 1931 1932|
|1929 حسب الموضوع:|
|تصنيفات المواليد والوفيات|
|تصنيفات تأسيسات وانحلالات|
|تصنيفات أعمال وأطروحات|
|آب أوربه كونديتا||2682|
|سنة العهد البريطاني||18 جو. 5 – 19 جو. 5|
|التقويم الصيني||戊辰年 (التراب التنين)
4625 أو 4565
— إلى —
己巳年 (التراب الثعبان)
4626 أو 4566
|- ڤيكرام سامڤات||1985–1986|
|- شاكا سامڤات||1851–1852|
|- كالي يوگا||5030–5031|
|التقويم الياباني||Shōwa 4
|التقويم اليوليوسي||الگريگوري ناقص 13 يوم|
|تقويم مينگوو||جمهورية الصين 18
|التقويم الشمسي التايلندي||2472|
سنة 1929 (MCMXXIX) كانت سنة بسيطة تبدأ يوم الثلاثاء (الرابط يعرض التقويم كاملاً) التقويم الگريگوري، السنة 1929th بعد الميلاد (م)، السنة 929th في الألفية 2nd، السنة 29th في القرن 20th، والسنة 10th والأخيرة في 1920s، مع فارق 1929 is 13 يوم عن التقويم اليوليوسي، وكانت آخر سنة تواصل استخدام التقويم اليوليوسي فيها حين اكتمل التحول إلى التقويم الگريگوري.
This year marked the end of a period known in American history as the Roaring Twenties after the Wall Street Crash of 1929 ushered in a worldwide Great Depression. In the Americas, an agreement was brokered to end the Cristero War, a Catholic counter-revolution in Mexico. The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, a British high court, ruled that Canadian women are persons in the Edwards v. Canada (Attorney General) case. The 1st Academy Awards for film were held in Los Angeles, while the Museum of Modern Art opened in New York City. The Peruvian Air Force was created.
In Asia, the Republic of China and the Soviet Union engaged in a minor conflict after the Chinese seized full control of the Manchurian Chinese Eastern Railway, which ended with a resumption of joint administration. In the Soviet Union, General Secretary Joseph Stalin expelled Leon Trotsky and adopted a policy of collectivization. The Grand Trunk Express began service in India. Rioting between Muslims and Jews in Jerusalem over access to the Western Wall took place in the Middle East. The centenary of Western Australia was celebrated.
The Kellogg–Briand Pact, a treaty renouncing war as an instrument of national policy, went into effect. In Europe, the Holy See and the Kingdom of Italy signed the Lateran Treaty. The Idionymon law was passed in Greece to outlaw political dissent. Spain hosted the Ibero-American Exposition which featured pavilions from Latin American countries. The German airship LZ 127 Graf Zeppelin flew around the world in 21 days.
- 1 Summary
- 2 أحداث
- 3 المواليد
- 4 الوفيات
- 5 Nobel Prizes
- 6 References
- 7 Sources
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Middle East, Asia, and Pacific Isles
On August 1 of this year the 1929 Palestine riots broke out between Palestinians and Jews over control of the Western Wall. The rioting, initiated in part when British police tore down a screen the Jews had constructed in front of the Wall, continued until the end of the month. In total, 133 Jews and 116 Palestinians were killed. Two of the more famous incidents occurring during these riots were the August 23–24 1929 Hebron massacre, in which almost 70 Jews were killed by Palestinians and the remaining Jews are forced to stay at Hebron. The Palestinians had been told that Jews were killing Palestinians. Jews would not return to Hebron until after the Six-Day War in 1967. The other major clash was the 1929 Safed massacre, in which 18–20 Jews were killed by Palestinians in Safed in similar fashion. Elsewhere in the Middle East, Iraq took a big step toward gaining independence from the British. The Iraqi government had, since the end of World War I and the beginning of the British Mandate in the Middle East, consistently resisted British hegemony. In September, Great Britain announced it would support Iraq's inclusion in the League of Nations, signaling the beginning of the end of their direct control of the region.
Early in 1929 the Afghan leader King Amanullah lost power through revolution and civil war to Habibullāh Kalakāni. Habibullāh's rule, however, only lasted nine months. Nadir Shah replaced him in October, starting a line of monarchs which would last 40 years. In India, a general strike in Bombay continued throughout the year despite efforts by the British. On December 29, the All India Congress in Lahore declared Indian independence from Britain, something it had threatened to do if Britain did not grant India dominion status. China and Russia engaged in a minor conflict after China seized full control of the Manchurian Chinese Eastern Railway. Russia counterattacked and took the cities of Hailar and Manchouli after issuing an ultimatum demanding joint control of the railway to be reinstated. The Chinese agreed to the terms on November 26. The Japanese would later see this defeat as a sign of Chinese weakness, leading to their taking control of Manchuria. The Far East began to experience economic problems late in the year as the effects of the Great Depression began to spread. Southeast Asia was especially hard hit as its exports (spice, rubber, and other commodities) were more sensitive to economic problems. In the Pacific, on December 28 – "Black Saturday" in Samoa – New Zealand colonial police killed 11 unarmed demonstrators, an event which led the Mau movement to demand independence for Samoa.
In 1929, the Fascist Party in Italy tightened its control. National education policy took a major step towards being completely taken over by the agenda of indoctrination. In that year, the Fascist government took control of the authorization of all textbooks, all secondary school teachers were required to take an oath of loyalty to Fascism, and children began to be taught that they owed the same loyalty to Fascism as they did to God.
On February 11, Mussolini signed the Lateran Treaty, making Vatican City a sovereign state. On July 25, Pope Pius XI emerged from the Vatican and entered St. Peter's Square in a huge procession witnessed by about 250,000 persons, thus ending nearly 60 years of papal self-imprisonment within the Vatican. Italy used the diplomatic prestige associated with this successful agreement to adopt a more aggressive foreign policy. Germany experienced a major turning point in this year due to the economic crash. The country had experienced prosperity under the government of the Weimar Republic until foreign investors withdrew their German interests. This began the crumbling of the Republican government in favor of Nazism. In 1929, the number of unemployed reached three million. On July 27, the Geneva Convention, held in Switzerland, addressed the treatment of prisoners of war in response to problems encountered during World War I.
On May 31, the British general election returned a hung parliament yet again, with the Liberals in position to determine who would have power. These elections were known as the "Flapper" elections due to the fact that it was the first British election in which women under 30 could vote. A week after the vote, on June 7 the Conservatives conceded power rather than ally with the Liberals. Ramsay MacDonald founded a new Labour government the next day.
1929 is regarded as a turning point by French historians, who point out that it was last year in which prosperity was felt before the effects of the Great Depression. The Third Republic had been in power since before World War I. On July 24, French prime minister Raymond Poincaré resigned for medical reasons; he was succeeded by Aristide Briand. Briand adopted a foreign policy of both peace and defensive fortification. The Kellogg–Briand Pact, renouncing war as an instrument of foreign policy, went into effect in this year (it was first signed in Paris in 1928 by most leading world powers). The French began work on the Maginot Line in this year, as a defense against a possible German attack, and on September 5 Briand presented a plan for the United States of Europe. On October 22, Briand was replaced as Prime Minister by André Tardieu. Primo de Rivera's dictatorship in Spain experienced growing dissatisfaction among students and academics, as well as businessmen who blamed the government for recent economic woes. Many called for a fascist regime, like that in Italy.
In May, Joseph Stalin consolidated his power in the Soviet Union by sending Leon Trotsky into exile. The only country that would grant Trotsky asylum was Turkey, in return for his help during Turkey's civil war. He and his family left the USSR aboard ship on February 12. Stalin turned on his former political ally, Nikolai Bukharin, who was the last real threat to his power. By the end of the year Bukharin had been defeated. [مطلوب توضيح] Once Stalin was in power, he turned his former support for Lenin's New Economic Policy into opposition. In November, Stalin declared that it "The Year of the Great Breakthrough" and stated that the country would focus on industrial programs as well as on collectivizing the grain supply. He hoped to surpass the West not only in agriculture, but in industry. Millions of Soviet farmers were removed from their private farms, their property was collected, and they were moved to state-owned farms. Stalin emphasized in 1929 a campaign demonizing kulaks as a plague on society. Kulak property was taken and they were deported by cattle train to areas of frozen tundra.
The timber market in Finland began to decline in 1929 due to the Great Depression, as well as the Soviet Union's entrance into the market. Financial and political problems culminated in the birth of the fascist Lapua Movement on November 23 in a demonstration in Lapua. The movement's stated aim was Finnish democracy and anti-communism. The Finnish legislature received heavy pressure to remove basic rights from Communist groups. Politics in Lithuania was heated, as President Voldemaras was unpopular in some quarters, and survived an assassination attempt in Kaunas. Later, while attending a meeting of the League of Nations, he was ousted in a coup by President Smetona, who made himself dictator. Upon Voldemaras' removal from office, Geležinis Vilkas went underground and received aid and encouragement in its activities from Germany. Yugoslavia was renamed the "Kingdom of Yugoslavia" as King Alexander sought to unite the Balkans under his rule. The state's new Monarchy replaced the old parliament, which had been dominated by Serbs.
In October 1929, the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council overturned a ruling by the Supreme Court of Canada that women could not be members of the legislature. This case, which came to be known as the Persons Case, had important ramifications not just for the rights of women but because in overturning the case, the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council engendered a radical change in the Canadian judicial approach to the Canadian constitution, an approach that has come to be known as the "living tree doctrine". The five women who initiated the case are known in Canada as the Famous Five. In November, the 1929 Grand Banks earthquake occurred off the south coast of Newfoundland in the Atlantic Ocean. It registered as a Richter magnitude 7.2 submarine earthquake centered on Grand Banks, broke 12 submarine transatlantic telegraph cables and triggered a tsunami that destroyed many south coast communities in the Burin Peninsula area, killing 28 (as of 1997, Canada's most lethal earthquake).
The Mexican Cristero War continued in 1929 as clerical forces attempted an assassination of the provisional president in a train bombing in February. The attempt failed. Plutarco Calles, at the center of power for the anti-clerics, continued to gather power in Mexico City. His government was considered an enemy to more conservative Mexicans who held to traditional forms of government and more religious control. Calles founded the National Revolutionary Party early in the year to increase his power; a party which was, ironically, seen by foreigners as fascist and which was in opposition to the Mexican Right. A special election was held in this year, which Jose Vasconselos lost to Ortiz Rubio. By this time, the war had ended. The last group of rebels was defeated on June 4, and in the same month US Ambassador Dwight Morrow initiated talks between parties. On June 21 an agreement was brokered ending the Cristero War. On June 27, church bells rang and mass was held publicly for the first time in three years. The agreement heavily favored the government, as priests were required to register with the government and religion was banned from schools.
The major event of the year for the United States was the stock market crash on Wall Street, which was to have international effects. On September 3, the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) peaked at 381.17, a height it would not reach again until November 1954. Then, from October 24–October 29, stock prices suffered three multi-digit percentage drops, wiping out more than $30 billion from the New York Stock Exchange (10 times greater than the annual budget of the federal government). On December 3 U.S. President Herbert Hoover announced to the U.S. Congress that the worst effects of the recent stock market crash were behind the nation, and that the American people had regained faith in the economy.
Literature, arts, and entertainment
Literature of the time reflected the memories many harbored of the horrors of World War I. A major seller was All Quiet on the Western Front by Erich Maria Remarque. Remarque was a German who had fought in the war at age eighteen and been wounded in the Third Battle of Ypres. He stated that he intended the book to tell the story "of a generation of men who, even though they may have escaped its shells, were destroyed by the war." Another 1929 book reflecting on World War I was Ernest Hemingway's A Farewell to Arms, as well as Good-Bye to All That by Robert Graves. In lighter media, a few stars of the comic industry made their debut, including Tintin, a comic book character created by Hergé, who would appear in over 200 million comic books in 60 languages. Popeye, another comic strip character created by Elzie Crisler Segar, also appeared in this year.
Within the film industry, on May 16 the 1st Academy Awards were presented at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel, with Wings winning Best Picture. Also, Hallelujah! became the first Hollywood film to contain an entirely black cast, and Atlantic, a film about the Titanic, is an early sound-on-film movie. The arts were in the midst of the Modernist movement, as Pablo Picasso painted two cubist works, Woman in a Garden and Nude in an Armchair, during this year. The surrealist painters Salvador Dalí and René Magritte completed several works, including The First Days of Spring and The Treachery of Images. On November 7 in New York City, the Museum of Modern Art opened to the public. The latest in modern architecture was also represented by the Barcelona Pavilion in Spain, and the Royal York Hotel in Toronto, at its completion the tallest building in the British Empire.
Science and technology
The year saw several advances in technology and exploration. On June 27 the first public demonstration of color TV was held by H. E. Ives and his colleagues at Bell Telephone Laboratories in New York. The first images were a bouquet of roses and an American flag. A mechanical system was used to transmit 50-line color television images between New York and Washington. The BBC broadcast a television transmission for the first time. By November, Vladimir Zworykin had taken out the first patent for color television. On November 29, Bernt Balchen, U.S. Admiral Richard Byrd, Captain Ashley McKinley, and Harold June, became the first to fly over the South Pole. Within the year, Britain, Australia and New Zealand began a joint Antarctic Research Expedition, and the German airship Graf Zeppelin began a round-the-world flight (ended August 29). This year Ernst Schwarz describes Bonobo (Pan paniscus) as a different species from common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), both closely related phylogenetically to human beings.
- 1 يناير
- 6 يناير
- 10 يناير - First appearance of Hergé's Belgian comic book hero Tintin as Tintin in the Land of the Soviets (Les Aventures de Tintin, reporter..., au pays des Soviets), begins serialization in children's newspaper supplement, Le Petit Vingtième.
- 14 يناير
- الصين: سوڤيت جيانگشي يستقر في رويجين. يسيطر على منطقة تسكنها عدة ملايين، من عام 1929 حتى 1934.
- أفغانستان: العداوة التي أشعلها برنامج إصلاحات الملك تؤدي إلى تمرد. أمان الله خان ينزل عن العرش ويهرب إلى قندهار. وفي 18 يناير، شقيقه عناية الله خان يطيح به زعيم المتمردين حبيب الله كلكاني، المعروف بإسم "باچا سكاو". وفي 24 يناير، أمان الله يتراجع عن تنازله عن العرش، ويطلب مساعدة البريطانيين، الذين يبقون محايدين، والاتحاد السوڤيتي، الذي يتدخل في شمال البلد. كما طلب أمان الله العون من القبائل التي بقيت موالية. ويذهب إلى غزنة، وحينما زحف على كابول، أُجبـِر على التراجع وترك أفغانستان في 23 مايو إلى روما عن طريق الهند.
- 15 يناير - Annales d'histoire économique et sociale begins publication in France.
- 17 يناير - First appearance of comic strip hero Popeye in Thimble Theatre.
- 29 يناير - All Quiet on the Western Front (Im Westen nichts Neues)، بقلم Erich Maria Remarque، تُنشر على شكل كتاب.
- 9 فبراير - "Litvinov's Pact" is signed in Moscow by the Soviet Union, Poland, Estonia, Romania and Latvia who agree not to use force to settle disputes between themselves.
- February 10 - Liga Espanola, a professional football league of Spain, founded.[بحاجة لمصدر]
- 11 فبراير - The Kingdom of Italy and the Holy See of the Catholic Church sign the Lateran Treaty to establish the Vatican City as an independent sovereign enclave within Rome, resolving the "Roman Question".
- 12 فبراير - وزير المستعمرات الفرنسي أندريه ماجينو يفتتح مشرورع ري ضخم في سوتوبا، بالقرب من باماكو، السودان الفرنسي.
- 14 فبراير - "Saint Valentine's Day Massacre": Five gangsters (rivals of Al Capone), plus two civilians, are shot dead in Chicago.
- February 26 - The Grand Teton National Park is established by the United States Congress.
- 2 مارس - The longest bridge in the world at this time, the San Francisco Bay Toll-Bridge, opens.
- 3 مارس - A revolt by Generals José Gonzalo Escobar and Jesús María Aguirre fails في المكسيك.
- 4 مارس
- 28 مارس - القوات اليابانية تنسحب من مقاطعة شاندونگ إلى حاميتهم في تسينگتاو منهية حادثة جينان.
- 30 مارس - Imperial Airways begins operating the first commercial flights between London and Karachi.
- 31 مارس - معركة السبيلة: While the Ikhwan a dissident، عبد العزيز بن سعود met tribal leaders and eradicate by force the Brotherhood after months of war and بدعم من البريطانيين. The help of the latter forces him to formally recognize Iraq and Transjordan .
- April 3 - Persia signs the Litvinov Protocol.
- April 4 - Karl Benz the creator of the first automobile dies.
- April 14 - The inaugural Monaco Grand Prix is won by William Grover-Williams driving a Bugatti.
- May - The Wickersham Commission begins its investigation of organized crime following alcohol Prohibition in the United States.
- May 1 - The 7.2 Mw Kopet Dag earthquake shakes the Iran-Turkmenistan border region with a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX (Violent), killing up to 3,800 and injuring 1,121.
- May 7 - "The Battle Of Blood Alley" is fought by a razor gang in Sydney, Australia
- May 16 - The 1st Academy Awards are presented in a 15-minute ceremony at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel, honoring the best movies of 1927 and 1928, Wings (1927) winning Best Picture. Gerald Duffy (died 1928) receives the only Academy Award for Best Title Writing ever awarded (for his intertitles to the silent film The Private Life of Helen of Troy (1927)).
- 18 مايو - Foundation of the Gold Coast Youth Conference on the occasion of the general meeting of WASU ( West african Student Union ).
- 19 مايو - أول مظاهرة تطالب باستقلال مدغشقر في أنتاناناريڤو، إثر طلب "Petition of the Indians of Madagascar" exposed by Paul Dussac , against the code of the natives and in favor of the French nationality in the African colonies.
- May 31 - The United Kingdom general election again returns a hung parliament; the Liberals in Parliament determine which party will govern.
- الصيف في أوغندا - لقاء بغرض تشكيل اتحاد للمواطنين، تقمعه الشرطة بشدة فتقتل خمسة وتجرح ثلاثين.
- 1 يونيو - The 1st Conference of the Communist Parties of Latin America is held in Buenos Aires.
- 2 يونيو - The Treaty of Lima settles a border dispute between Peru and Chile.
- June 7 - The Lateran Treaty, making Vatican City a sovereign state, is ratified.
- June 8 - Ramsay MacDonald forms the United Kingdom's second Labour government.
- 14 يونيو - الانتخابات العامة الجنوب أفريقية.
- June 21 - An agreement brokered by U.S. Ambassador Dwight Whitney Morrow helps end the Cristero War in Mexico.
- June 27 - The first public demonstration of color TV is held, by H. E. Ives and his colleagues at Bell Telephone Laboratories in New York. The first images are a bouquet of roses and an American flag. A mechanical system is used to transmit 50-line color television images between New York and Washington.
- July 11 - In the Soviet Union, a secret decree of the Sovnarkom creates the backbone of the Gulag system.
- July 24
- French prime minister Raymond Poincaré resigns and is succeeded by Aristide Briand.
- The Kellogg–Briand Pact, renouncing war as an instrument of foreign policy, goes into effect (it was first signed in Paris on August 27, 1928, by most leading world powers).
- Union Airways Pty. Ltd. is founded, to be nationalised as South African Airways on 1 February 1934.
- July 25 - Pope Pius XI emerges from the Apostolic Palace and enters St. Peter's Square in a huge procession witnessed by about 250,000 persons, thus ending nearly 60 years of self-imposed status by the papacy as Prisoner in the Vatican.
- July 27
- 6-31 أغسطس - مؤتمر دولي في لاهاي ينتهي باتفاقيات تنص على إخلاء المنطقة الثانية من أرض الراين (كوبلنتس) في خلال ثلاثة أشهر، وإخلاء المنطقة الثالثة (ماينز ورأس جسر كاسل) مباشرة بعد التصديق على خطة ينگ، على أن ينتهي الإخلاء في 30 يونيو 1930.
- 8-29 أغسطس - German rigid airship LZ 127 Graf Zeppelin makes a circumnavigation of the Northern Hemisphere eastabout out of Lakehurst, New Jersey, including the first nonstop flight of any kind عبر المحيط الهادي (طوكيو-لوس أنجلس).
- 11 أغسطس - حاييم وايزمان ينشئ في زيورخ، الوكالة اليهودية، الفرع الفلسطيني من المنظمة الصهيونية العالمية التي تأسست في 1920، والمسئولة عن تنظيم وتنمية المستوطنات اليهودية في فلسطين.
- 20 أغسطس - أول بث of John Logie Baird's experimental 30-line television system by the British Broadcasting Corporation.
- 23–24 أغسطس - ثورة البراق: إثر مظاهرة يهودية ( 23 أغسطس )، السكان العرب في القدس والخليل يهاجمون الأحياء والضواحي اليهودية. وانضم للثورة فلاحو البلدات المجاورة. سلطات الانتداب أعلنت حالة الحصار. انتشرت شائعة أن اليهود على وشك الاستيلاء على المسجد العمري. فعبرت قبائل من البدو نهر الأردن للدفاع عن المسجد، واقتحموا الثكنات البريطانية. الصدامات تسببت في مقتل 133 يهودي و 116 عربي. حكومة الانتداب قررت الاتنقال من القدس إلى يافا في آخر أغسطس. قوات بريطانية من مصر، تم استدعاؤها، وتم قمع ثورة العرب بعنف وشدة
- 29 أغسطس
- 31 أغسطس - Young Plan, which sets the total تعويضات الحرب العالمية الأولى owed by Germany at US$26,350,000,000 to be paid over a period of 58½ years, is finalized.
- 3 سبتمبر - Dow Jones Industrial Average peaks at 381.17, a height it will not reach again حتى نوفمبر 1954.
- 5 سبتمبر - أريستيد بريان يقدم خطته لإنشاء الولايات المتحدة الأوروپية.
- 14 سبتمبر - گلبرت كلايتون، المندوب السامي البريطاني في العراق، يُخوَّل بإبلاغ الحكومة العراقية نية حكومته إنهاء الانتداب البريطاني على بلاد الرافدين. حكومة حزب العمل البريطانية المنتخبة في يونيو تقبل بمبدأ استقلال مملكة العراق الذي ستتفاوض عليه في معاهدة جديدة في 30 يونيو 1930.
- 17 سبتمبر - A coup ousts Augustinas Voldemaras في لتوانيا; the new president is Antanas Smetona.
- 25 سبتمبر - Paris: the Association Amicale des Originaires of the AEF sends to Brazzaville two delegates, who receive the authorization of the cabinet of the governor general Antonetti to organize a tour in the French Congo to explain the aims of the association and to take adhesions. Given their success, the two delegates Pierre Ganga and Constant Balou are apprehended and the money collected is confiscated. André-Grenard Matsoua and the main leaders of the Amicale are arrested in Paris in December , and transferred to Brazzaville to be judged the April 2 , 1930 ; they are sentenced to three years in prison and ten years of stay in the Middle Congo and deported to Chad 9 . The episode marks the beginning of the matsouanist agitation in the French Congo .
- 30 سبتمبر - Fritz von Opel pilots the first rocket-powered aircraft, the Opel RAK.1, in front of a large crowd in فرانكفورت على الماين.
- Success of Oromos Wollo , Yejju, and Raya revolt in Ethiopia 10 , 11 . راس تفري يطلب من راس گوگسا أن يخمد التمرد، but this one turns against him. He was finally defeated in March 1930.
- 6 أكتوبر - Serie A, as known well for professional football league of Italy, replacing from Divisione Nazionale.[بحاجة لمصدر]
- 14 أكتوبر - The Philadelphia Athletics win the World Series four games to one over the Chicago Cubs, taking Game Five by a 3-2 score at Shibe Park.
- 17 أكتوبر - محمد ظاهر شاه، عم أمان الله خان، يعتلي عرش أفغانستان، بعد أن هزم المتمردين. حبيب الله كلكاني يُعدم في 2 نوفمبر.
- 18 أكتوبر - On appeal from the Supreme Court of Canada on behalf of "The Famous Five" Canadian women in the landmark case of Edwards v. Canada (Attorney General), the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in the United Kingdom announces that women are "persons" under the British North America Acts and thus eligible for appointment to the Senate of Canada.
- 22 أكتوبر - حكومة أريستيد بريان تسقط في فرنسا.
- 24-29 أكتوبر - Wall Street Crash of 1929: Three multi-digit percentage drops wipe out more than $30 billion from the New York Stock Exchange (10 times greater than the annual budget of the federal government).
- 25 أكتوبر - Former U.S. Interior Secretary Albert B. Fall is convicted of bribery for his role in the Teapot Dome scandal, becoming the first Presidential cabinet member to go to prison for actions in office.
- 26 أكتوبر - 14 نوفمبر - باثرست، نجاح اضراب عام نظمه Bathurst Trade Union (BTU), created in May in Gambia.
- 30 أكتوبر - The Stuttgart Cable Car is constructed in Stuttgart, Germany.
- 31 أكتوبر - نقل عاصمة الكونغو البلجيكي من بوما إلى ليوپولدڤيل.
- Formation of the Senegalese Socialist Party by Lamine Guèye (أو 1934 )
- تأسيس TAA ( Tanganyika African Association ), resulting from the TTACSA
- Harold Grimshaw Report on Forced Labor in Black Africa handed to Geneva at the International Labor Office.
- November - Vladimir Zworykin takes out the first patent for color television.
- 1 نوفمبر
- November 7 - In New York City, the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) opens to the public. The first exhibition 'Cézanne, Gauguin, van Gogh and Seurat' (Nov 7 – Dec 7) was seen by 47.000 visitors, curator is Alfred H. Barr.
- November 15 - U.K. release of Atlantic, a film about the sinking of the RMS Titanic which is one of the first British sound-on-film movies and, in its simultaneously-shot German-language version, the first to be released in Germany.
- November 18 - 1929 Grand Banks earthquake.
- November 29 - Bernt Balchen, U.S. Admiral Richard Byrd, Captain Ashley McKinley and Harold June become the first to fly over the القطب الجنوبي.
- 5 ديسمبر - طاجيكستان تصبح جمهورية اشتراكية سوڤيتية.، وعضو كامل في الاتحاد السوڤيتي. إقليم خوجند الواقع في وادي فرغانة، الذي كان يتبع أوزبكستان، ينضم إلى طاجيكستان. نظر السوفيت لهذه الدولة بتقدير كبير نظراً لهويتها الفارسية، على النقيض من العالم التوركي المحيط بها. وقد منحتها موسكو الجزء الشرقي من بادخشان الجبلي (پامير)، الذي يسكنه قيرغيز.
- 24 ديسمبر - جزر الهند الشرقية الهولندية: اعتقال سوكارنو وسبعة من زعماء الحزب الوطني الإندونيسي ويُحكم عليهم بالسجن أربع سنوات (تنتهي في ديسمبر 1931).
- 28 ديسمبر - "السبت الأسود" في ساموا: الشرطة الاستعمارية النيوزيلندية تقتل 11 متظاهر أعزل، وهو الحدث الذي أدى إلى حركة ماو المطالبة باستقلال ساموا.
- 29 ديسمبر - مؤتمر عموم الهند في لاهور يطالب باستقلال الهند.
- January 1
- January 3
- January 4
- January 5 – Wilbert Harrison, American singer (d. 1994)
- January 7 – Terry Moore, American actress
- January 8
- January 9 – Brian Friel, Irish dramatist (d. 2015)
- January 11 – Nureddin al-Atassi, Syrian philatelist, 54th Prime Minister of Iran and 17th President of Iran (d. 1992)
- January 12
- January 15 – Martin Luther King Jr., American civil rights leader, Nobel laureate (d. 1968)
- January 16 – Shigeru Kōyama, Japanese actor (d. 2017)
- January 17
- January 20
- January 23 – John Charles Polanyi, Canadian chemist, Nobel laureate
- January 25 – Benny Golson, American jazz musician
- January 26 – Sumiteru Taniguchi, Japanese anti-nuclear weapons activist (d. 2017)
- January 28 – Claes Oldenburg, American artist Clothespin (Oldenburg)
- January 29 – George Ross Anderson, Jr., United States federal judge
- January 27 – Mohamed Al-Fayed, Egyptian business magnate
- January 30 – Richard Long, 4th Viscount Long, British peer and politician (d. 2017)
- January 31
- February 1 – Basilio Lami Dozo, Argentine dictator (d. 2017)
- February 2
- February 3 – Huntington Hardisty, American admiral (d. 2003)
- February 4
- February 5
- February 6
- February 10
- February 14 – Vic Morrow, American actor and director (d. 1982)
- February 15
- February 17
- February 18 – Len Deighton, British author
- February 21 – Chespirito, Mexican actor and comedian (d. 2014)
- February 22
- February 23 – Patriarch Alexy II of Russia (d. 2008)
- February 24 – Zdzisław Beksiński, Polish surrealist painter (d. 2005)
- March 1 – Georgi Markov, Bulgarian dissident (d. 1978)
- March 6 – Fazil Iskander, Abkhaz writer (d. 2016)
- March 8
- March 9
- March 13 – Peter Breck, American actor and drama teacher (d. 2012)
- March 18 – Christa Wolf, German literary critic, novelist, and essayist (d. 2011)
- March 19
- March 20
- March 22 – P. Ramlee, Malaysian film actor, director, singer, songwriter, composer, and producer (d. 1973)
- March 23 – Sir Roger Bannister, British athlete
- March 25 – Cecil Taylor, American free jazz pianist and composer
- March 27
- March 29 – Lennart Meri, President of Estonia (d. 2006)
- April 1
- April 2 – Ed Dorn, American poet (d. 1999)
- April 3 – Poul Schlüter, Danish politician
- April 5
- April 6 – Christos Sartzetakis, Greek politician
- April 9 – Fred Hollows, New Zealand-Australian ophthalmologist (d. 1993)
- April 10
- April 14
- April 14 – Chadli Bendjedid, 3rd President of Algeria (d. 2012)
- April 16 – Roy Hamilton, American singer (d. 1969)
- April 17 – James Last, German composer (d. 2015)
- April 20 – John Andreason, American politician (d. 2017)
- April 22 – Michael Atiyah, British-Lebanese mathematician
- April 25 – Abderrahmane Mahjoub, French and Moroccan international football (soccer) midfielder (d. 2011)
- April 26 – Alexandre Lamfalussy, Hungarian-born Belgian economist and central banker (d. 2015)
- April 30 – Klausjürgen Wussow, German theatre- and television actor (d. 2007)
- May 1 – Ralf Dahrendorf, Anglo-German sociologist (d. 2009)
- May 2
- May 3
- May 4
- May 5 – Ilene Woods, American singer and actress (d. 2010)
- May 6 – Paul Lauterbur, American chemist, Nobel laureate (d. 2007)
- May 8
- May 10 – Betty Foss, American female professional baseball player (d. 1998)
- May 11 – Margaret Kerry, American actress
- May 12 – Sam Nujoma, first President of Namibia
- May 15 – Otar Patsatsia, Georgian politician
- May 16
- May 20 – Ahmed Hamdi, Egyptian soldier (d. 1973)
- May 25 – Beverly Sills, American operatic soprano; later director of the New York City Opera (d. 2007)
- May 26 – Lloyd Reckord, Jamaican actor, filmmaker and director (d. 2015)
- May 29
- June 3
- June 4 – Karolos Papoulias, President of Greece
- June 6 – Sunil Dutt, Hindi film actor (d. 2005)
- June 7 – John Turner, 17th Prime Minister of Canada
- June 9 – Johnny Ace, American rhythm and blues singer (d. 1954)
- June 10
- June 12 – Anne Frank, German-born diarist and Holocaust victim (d. 1945)
- June 16
- June 18 – Jürgen Habermas, German sociologist and philosopher
- June 20
- June 21
- June 22 – Alex P. Garcia, American politician
- June 23
- June 24
- June 25
- June 26 – Milton Glaser, American graphic designer, illustrator and teacher
- June 27
- June 28
- June 29
- June 30
- July 1
- July 2
- July 3
- July 4
- July 5
- July 6
- July 7
- July 8
- July 9
- July 10
- July 11 – David Kelly, Irish actor (d. 2012)
- July 12
- July 13
- July 14
- Adam Inglis, Australian rules footballer
- Jean Konan Banny, Ivorian politician
- Sonja Kastl, Croatian film and stage actress, teacher, dancer and choreographer
- V. C. Kulandaiswamy, Indian academic and author (d. 2016)
- Kailash Chandra Joshi, politician belonging to Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)
- Syed Rahim, Indian cricketer (d. 2014)
- Patricia Scott, American pitcher (d. 2016)
- July 15 – Alain Porthault, French former sprinter
- July 16
- July 17
- July 18
- July 19
- July 20
- July 21
- Albert Kwesi Ocran, Ghanaian soldier and politician
- Antonia Handler Chayes, American lawyer and educator
- Idrissa Dione, French boxer
- Birger Asplund, Swedish hammer thrower
- Albert Kwesi Ocran, Ghanaian soldier and politician
- John Woodvine, English stage and screen actor
- Paul V. Gadola, American judge (d. 2014)
- July 22
- July 24 – Peter Yates, English film director and producer (d. 2011)
- July 25 – Vasily Shukshin, Russian actor, writer, screenwriter and film director (d. 1974)
- July 26 – Patrick Flores, American Roman Catholic prelate (d. 2017)
- July 27
- July 28 – Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, First Lady of the United States (d. 1994)
- July 31
- August 1
- August 4 – Vellore G. Ramabhadran, Mridangam artiste from Tamil Nadu, India. (d. 2012)
- August 5
- August 7 – Don Larsen, American baseball player
- August 8
- August 9 – George Scott Wallace, British Columbia physician and politician (d. 2011)
- August 12 – Jean Miller, English actress and painter (d. 2014)
- August 14 – Derek Fielding, Australian librarian and author (d. 2014)
- August 15 – Louise Shivers, American author and writer (d. 2014)
- August 16 – William Copeland, Australian Test cricket match umpire (d. 2011)
- August 17 – Francis Gary Powers, American U-2 spy plane pilot (d. 1977)
- August 21 – Ahmed Kathrada, South African politician, former political prisoner and anti-apartheid activist (d. 2017)
- August 23 – Zoltán Czibor, Hungarian footballer (d. 1997)
- August 24
- August 26 – Chuck Renslow, American businessman and LGBT activist (d. 2017)
- August 27
- August 29 – Lorenz Weinrich, German historian
- August 30 – Ian McNaught-Davis, British television presenter (d. 2014)
- September 1
- September 3
- September 4 – Thomas Eagleton, United States Senator for Missouri (1969–87) (d. 2007)
- September 5 – Bob Newhart, American comedian and actor
- September 10 – Arnold Palmer, American golfer (d. 2016)
- September 11 – Eve Brent, American actress (d. 2011)
- September 14 – Hans Clarin, German actor (d. 2005)
- September 15 – Murray Gell-Mann, American physicist, Nobel laureate
- September 16
- September 19
- September 20 – Anne Meara, American actress and comedian (d. 2015)
- September 21
- September 22 – Hédi Váradi, Hungarian actress (d. 1987)
- September 25
- September 28
- September 29 – Giorgio Bàrberi Squarotti, Italian academic and poet (d. 2017)
- September 30
- October 1 – Maitama Sule, Nigerian politician (d. 2017)
- October 2
- October 5 – Richard F. Gordon Jr., American astronaut (d. 2017)
- October 7 – Tony Beckley, English character actor (d. 1980)
- October 8 – Arthur Bisguier, American chess Grandmaster, chess promoter, and writer (d. 2017)
- October 11 – Liselotte Pulver, Swiss actress
- October 13 – Walasse Ting, Chinese-American painter (d. 2010)
- October 15
- October 16
- October 18 – Violeta Chamorro, President of Nicaragua
- October 19 – Henri Cueco, French painter (d. 2017)
- October 20 – Colin Jeavons, Welsh actor
- October 21 – Ursula K. Le Guin, American science-fiction and fantasy author
- October 22 – Lev Yashin, Russian footballer (d. 1990)
- October 24 – Clifford Rose, British classical actor
- October 29 – Yevgeny Primakov, Russian politician and diplomat (d. 2015)
- October 30 – Jean Chapman, English romantic novelist
- October 31 – Bud Spencer, Italian actor (d. 2016)
- November 2
- November 6 – June Squibb, American actress
- November 7
- November 8
- November 9 – Imre Kertész, Hungarian writer, Nobel laureate (d. 2016)
- November 10 – Ninón Sevilla, Cuban-born Mexican film actress and dancer (d. 2015)
- November 12
- November 13 – Fred Phelps, American pastor, activist (Westboro Baptist Church) (d. 2014)
- November 14 – Jimmy Piersall, American baseball center fielder (d. 2017)
- November 15
- November 17 – Gorō Naya, Japanese actor, voice actor, narrator and theatre director, older brother of Rokurō Naya (d. 2013)
- November 18 – John McMartin, American actor (d. 2016)
- November 23
- November 24
- November 25 – Marcel De Corte, Belgian footballer (d. 2017)
- November 26 – Slavko Avsenik, Slovene musician and composer (d. 2015)
- November 28
- November 30 – Dick Clark, American television entertainer (d. 2012)
- December 1 – David Doyle, American actor (d. 1997)
- December 6 – Nikolaus Harnoncourt, Austrian conductor (d. 2016)
- December 9 – Bob Hawke, 23rd Prime Minister of Australia
- December 13 – Christopher Plummer, Canadian actor
- December 16 – Nicholas Courtney, British actor (d. 2011)
- December 17 – William Safire, American author, columnist, journalist, and presidential speechwriter (d. 2009)
- December 18 – Yeoh Tiong Lay, Malaysian businessman (d. 2017)
- December 23 – Chet Baker, American jazz musician (d. 1988)
- December 26
- December 29
- December 30
- December 31
- January 5
- January 13 – Wyatt Earp, American gunfighter (b. 1848)
- January 15
- January 24 – Wilfred Baddeley, English tennis player (b. 1872)
- January 30
- February 3 – José Gutiérrez Guerra, 28th President of Bolivia (b. 1869)
- February 6 – Maria Christina of Austria, Queen Regent of Spain (b. 1858)
- February 11 – Johann II, Prince of Liechtenstein (b. 1840)
- February 12 – Lillie Langtry, British singer and actress (b. 1853)
- February 14 – Thomas Burke, American sprinter (b. 1875)
- February 18 – William Russell, American actor (b. 1884)
- February 24 – Frank Keenan, American actor (b. 1858)
- February 27 – Briton Hadden, co-founder of Time magazine (b. 1898)
- March 1 – Royal H. Weller, American politician (b. 1881)
- March 2 – Sir Edward Hobart Seymour, British admiral (b. 1840)
- March 5 – David Dunbar Buick, Scottish-American inventor (b. 1854)
- March 12 – Asa Griggs Candler, American businessman and politician (b. 1851)
- March 15 – Pinetop Smith, American blues pianist (b. 1904)
- March 18 – William P. Cronan, Naval Governor of Guam (b. 1879)
- March 20 – Ferdinand Foch, French commander of Allied forces in World War I (b. 1851)
- April 4
- April 12 – Enrico Ferri, Italian criminologist (b. 1856)
- April 22 – Henry Lerolle, French painter (b. 1848)
- April 24 – Caroline Rémy de Guebhard, French feminist (b. 1855)
- May 2
- May 12 – Charles Swickard, German-American film director (b. 1861)
- May 21 – Archibald Primrose, former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1847)
- June 8 – Bliss Carman, Canadian poet (b. 1861)
- June 11 – William Dickson Boyce, American entrepreneur and founder of the Boy Scouts of America (b. 1858)
- June 16 – Bramwell Booth, General of The Salvation Army (b. 1856)
- June 26 – Amandus Adamson, Estonian sculptor (b. 1855)
- June 28 – Edward Carpenter, English poet (b. 1844)
- July 2 – Gladys Brockwell, American actress (b. 1893)
- July 3 – Dustin Farnum, American actor (b. 1874)
- July 12 – Robert Henri, American painter (b. 1865)
- July 15 – Hugo von Hofmannsthal, Austrian writer (b. 1874)
- July 28 – Hertha Hanfstaengl, second child and only daughter of Ernst Hanfstaengl (b. 1924)
- August – Mary MacLane, Canadian feminist writer (b. 1881)
- August 3
- August 5 – Dame Millicent Fawcett, British suffragist and feminist (b. 1847)
- August 14 – Henry Horne, 1st Baron Horne, British general (b. 1861)
- August 19 – Sergei Diaghilev, Russian ballet impresario (b. 1872)
- August 22 – Otto Liman von Sanders, German general (b. 1855)
- August 26 – Sir Ernest Satow, British diplomat and scholar (b. 1843)
- August 27 – Herman Potočnik Noordung, Slovenian rocket engineer (b. 1892)
- September 2 – Paul Leni, German filmmaker (b. 1885)
- September 12 – Rainis, Latvian poet and playwright (b. 1865)
- September 23 – Richard Adolf Zsigmondy, Austrian-born chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1865)
- September 24 – Mahidol Adulyadej, Thai doctor and father of King Rama IX (b. 1892)
- September 25 – Miller Huggins, American baseball manager and MLB Hall of Famer (b. 1879)
- September 26 – Aby Warburg, German historian and cultural theorist (b. 1866)
- September 27 – Johnny Hill. British, European, and World flyweight boxing champion (b. 1905)
- September 29 – Tanaka Giichi, 26th Prime Minister of Japan (b. 1864)
- October 1 – Antoine Bourdelle, French sculptor (b. 1861)
- October 3
- October 20 – José Batlle y Ordóñez, 3-time President of Uruguay (b. 1856)
- October 21 – Vasil Radoslavov, 7th Prime Minister of Bulgaria (b. 1854)
- October 27
- October 28 – Bernhard von Bülow, Chancellor of Germany (b. 1849)
- October 29 – Emily Robin, English Madame (b. 1874)
- October 31 – António José de Almeida, 6th President of Portugal and 64th Prime Minister of Portugal (b. 1866)
- November 1 – Habibullāh Kalakāni, deposed Emir of Afghanistan (b. 1891)
- November 6 – Prince Maximilian of Baden, Chancellor of Germany (b. 1867)
- November 14 – Joe McGinnity, American baseball player and MLB Hall of Famer (b. 1871)
- November 15 – Léon Delacroix, former Prime Minister of Belgium (b. 1867)
- November 17 – Herman Hollerith, American businessman and inventor (b. 1860)
- November 24
- December 10
- December 14 – Henry B. Jackson, British admiral (b. 1855)
- December 17
- December 20 – Émile Loubet, French politician, 8th President of France (b. 1838)
- December 21 – I. L. Patterson, American politician, 18th Governor of Oregon (b. 1859)
- December 26 – Albert Giraud, Belgian poet (b. 1860)
- December 29 – Wilhelm Maybach, German automobile designer (b. 1846)
- Physics – Louis de Broglie
- Chemistry – Arthur Harden, Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin
- Physiology or Medicine – Christiaan Eijkman, Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins
- Literature – Thomas Mann
- Peace – Frank Billings Kellogg
- ^ Segev, Tom (1999). One Palestine, Complete. Metropolitan Books. pp. 295–313. ISBN 0-8050-4848-0.
- ^ Stannard, Matthew B. (2005-08-09). "A Time of Change; Israelis, Palestinians and the Disengagement". San Francisco Chronicle.
- ^ NA 59/8/353/84/867n, 404 Wailing Wall/279 and 280, Archdale Diary and Palestinian Police records.
- ^ Segev, Tom (2000). One Palestine, Complete; Jews and Arabs under the British Mandate. Translated by Haim Watzman of Metropolitan Books, Little, Brown and company. pp. 318–319; ISBN 0-8050-4848-0 and ISBN 0-316-64859-0.
- ^ Kaplan, Neil (1983). Early Arab-Zionist Negotiation Attempts, 1913-1931. London: Routledge. p. 82. ISBN 0-7146-3214-7.
- ^ Silverfarb, Daniel; Majid Khadduri (1986). Britain's Informal Empire in the Middle East. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 13–20. ISBN 0-19-503997-1.
- ^ pp. 41–44 ISBN 0-8133-4019-5
- ^ Chandavarkar, Rajnarayan. Imperial Power and Popular Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998. pp. 170–178 ISBN 0-521-59692-0
- ^ Vohra, Ranbir. The Making of India. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 2001. pp. 147–148 ISBN 0-7656-0712-3
- ^ Elleman, Bruce. Diplomacy and Deception. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1997. pp. 282–283 ISBN 0-7656-0143-5
- ^ Tarling, Nicholas. The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. pp. 182–184 ISBN 0-521-66371-7
- ^ أ ب Meleisea, Malama (1987). Lagaga: A Short History of Western Samoa. University of the South Pacific. pp. 137–8. ISBN 982-02-0029-6.
- ^ أ ب Pauley, Bruce F. (2003). Hitler, Stalin, and Mussolini: Totalitarianism in the Twentieth Century. Wheeling: Harlan Davidson. p. 117.
- ^ Scala, DI; M. Spencer; D.I. Scala (2004). Italy from Revolution to Republic. Boulder: Westview Press. pp. 262–263. ISBN 0-8133-4176-0.
- ^ Kertzer, David (2004). Prisoner of the Vatican. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. pp. 292–293. ISBN 0-618-22442-4.
- ^ Pollard, John (2005). The Vatican and Italian Fascism, 1929-32. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 74–76. ISBN 0-521-02366-1.
- ^ Lee, Stephen (1996). Weimar and Nazi Germany. London: Heinemann. pp. 38–39. ISBN 0-435-30920-X.
- ^ Gilbert, Martin. A History of the Twentieth Century. New York: Avon books, 1998. ISBN 0-380-71393-4
- ^ Geneva Convention (1929):Introduction
- ^ Bingham, Adrian (2004). Gender, Modernity, and the Popular Press in Inter-War Britain. Oxford: Clarendon. p. 125. ISBN 0-19-927247-6.
- ^ Rubinstein, William (2003). Twentieth-Century Britain. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 165–169. ISBN 0-333-77224-5.
- ^ Louria, Margot (2001). Triumph and Downfall. Westport: Greenwood Press. pp. 137–138. ISBN 0-313-31272-9.
- ^ Bernard, Philippe (1985). The Decline of the Third Republic, 1914-1938. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 173. ISBN 0-521-35854-X.
- ^ Steiner, Zara (2005). The Lights That Failed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 828. ISBN 0-19-822114-2.
- ^ Payne, Stanley (1999). Fascism in Spain, 1923-1977. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. pp. 36–37. ISBN 0-299-16564-7.
- ^ Brackman, Roman. The Secret File of Joseph Stalin. London: Frank Cass, 2001. pp. 202–203 ISBN 0-7146-5050-1
- ^ Alexander, Robert. International Trotskyism, 1929-1985. Durham: Duke University Press, 1991. p. 3 ISBN 0-8223-1066-X
- ^ Rappaport, Helen. Joseph Stalin: a Biographical Companion. City: ABC-Clio Inc, 1999. p. 119 ISBN 1-57607-084-0
- ^ Gilbert, 761–2
- ^ Singleton, Frederick and Anthony Upton. A Short History of Finland. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998. p. 117; ISBN 0-521-64701-0
- ^ Capoccia, Giovanni. Defending Democracy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005. p. 153–154 ISBN 0-8018-8038-6
- ^ أ ب Kristina Vaičikonis. Augustinas Voldemaras. Lituanus, Vol. 30, No. 3, Fall 1984, ed. Antanas Klimas; ISSN 0024-5089
- ^ Lukic, Reneo and Allen Lynch. Europe from the Balkans to the Urals. Solna: SIPRI, 1996. p. 68 ISBN 0-19-829200-7
- ^ Payne, Stanley. A History of Fascism, 1914-1945. New York: Routledge, 1996. pp. 143–144 ISBN 1-85728-595-6
- ^ Brennan, Brian (2001). Alberta Originals: Stories of Albertans Who Made a Difference. Fifth House. p. 14. ISBN 1-894004-76-0.
- ^ أ ب Ruffman, Alan (1997) (PDF), The 1929 Tsunami In St. Lawrence, Newfoundland, Ottawa: Office of Critical Infrastructure Protection and Emergency Preparedness, Archived from the original on January 13, 2013, https://web.archive.org/web/20130113024644/http://www.shunpiking.com/ol0103/1929_Tsunami_in_NF.pdf, retrieved on 2013-02-26
- ^ Sherman, John. The Mexican Right New York: Praeger, 1997. ISBN 0-275-95736-5 pp. 18–23
- ^ Scheina, Robert. Latin America's Wars Volume II: the Age of the Professional Soldier, 1900-2001. City: Potomac Books Inc, 2003. ISBN 1-57488-452-2; pp. 32–33
- ^ Gilbert, 767–9
- ^ Hoover, Herbert. "Annual Message to Congress on the State of the Union". The American Presidency Project. Retrieved 2013-02-26.
- ^ Gilbert, pp. 769–70
- ^ "Popeye the Sailor". Don Markstein's Toonopedia. Retrieved 2011-09-22.
- ^ أ ب Rezun, Miron (1981). The Soviet Union and Iran. Brill Archive. p. 148. ISBN 90-286-2621-2.
- ^ Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. p. 91. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
- ^ The Hutchinson Factfinder. Helicon. 1999. ISBN 1-85986-000-1.
- ^ Stockings, Craig (2007). The Torch and the Sword: A History of the Army Cadet Movement in Australia. UNSW Press. p. 86. ISBN 0-86840-838-7.
- The 1930s Timeline: 1929 – from American Studies Programs at The University of Virginia