أكبر العضيات

صورة ساتلية لجزء من الحاجز المرجاني العظيم، الذي يـُعتبر ببعض المقاييس أكبر كائن حي في العالم.
أيكة الحور في غابة فيشليك الوطنية، تماثل في المظهر أيكة الپاندو.

أكبر عضية وُجدت على سطح الأرض يمكن قياسها بطرق مختلفة. يمكن تعريفها كالأكبر حجماً أو كتلةً أو ارتفاعاً أو طولاً. بعض العضيات تجتمع معاً لتشكل كائناً عملاقاً، إلا أن تلك لا يمكن حقاً اعتبارها كعضية واحدة كبيرة. (الحاجز المرجاني العظيم، هو أكبر شعاب مرجانية في العالم، (إذ يمتد لمسافة 2,000 كم) قد اتضح أنه مجموعة من عضيات عديدة).

تشكل شجرة الحور (Populus tremuloides) شوادر ضخمة من أشجار متطابقة جينياً تماماً (فنياً، جذوعها) متصلة بنظام جذور واحد تحت الأرض. وتشكل هذه الشجرات عبر براعم الجذور النابتة من الشجرة الأم، بالرغم من أن نظام الجذور قد لا يبقى كوحدة واحدة في كل الحالات. وأكبر أيكة حور معروفة كاملة الاتصال توجد في ولاية يوتاه، الولايات المتحدة وتـُسمى پاندو، ويسميها بعض الخبراء أكبر كائن حي في العالم،[1] حسب الكتلة أو الحجم.[2] فهي تغطي 0.43 كم2 (106 فدان) ويقدر وزنها بحوالي 6,600 short tons (6,000 t). [3]

فطر عملاق من هذا النوع Armillaria ostoyae ( فطر العسل) في ماهور الوطنية للغابات في ولاية أوريغون وجدت لفترة 8.9 km2 (2,200 acres)[4], which would make it the largest organism by area. Whether or not this is an actual individual organism, however, is disputed: some tests have indicated that they have the same genetic makeup,[5] but unless its mycelium is fully connected, it is a clonal colony of numerous smaller individuals. Another clonal colony that rivals the Armillaria and the Populus colonies in size is a strand of the giant marine plant, Posidonia oceanica, discovered in the Mediterranean Sea near the Balearic Islands. It covers a band roughly 8 km (4.3 miles) in length.[6]

Excluding multi-stem trees, the General Sherman, an individual sequoiadendron (giant sequoia) tree with a volume of 1,487 m3 (52,500 cu ft) would hold the title of the world's largest living organism, if measured in volume.[7] This tree stands 83.8 m (275 ft) tall and the trunk alone is estimated to weigh over 2,000 short tons (1,800 t).

The largest single-stem tree ever measured was the Lindsey Creek Tree, a coast redwood with a minimum trunk volume of over 2,500 m3 (88,000 cu ft) and a mass of over 3,600 short tons (3,300 t). It fell over during a storm in 1905.[8]

By volume and weight, the largest known living animal is the blue whale, an endangered species whose official record length is 33.58 m (110.2 ft), and weight 210 short tons (for a pregnant female). The largest land animals today by mass are male (bull) African Bush Elephants (Savannah Elephants or Bush Elephants); one known example weighed roughly 12,272 kg (27,055 lb) although some extinct species, including many dinosaurs, were much larger. A 1985 study by the University of Helsinki concluded that the theoretical limit for land-dwelling animals based on known types of body plans was between 100 and 1000 metric tonnes.[9]

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الفقاريات

الثدييات

الحوت الأزرق أكبر حيوان معروف على وجه الأرض.

يعتقد أن ، الحوت الأزرق (Balaenoptera musculus) ، وهو أحد أفراد رتبة الحيتانيات، أكبر الحيوانات الحية على الإطلاق، with the largest extinct sauropods believed to surpass the blue whale in terms of dimensions, [بحاجة لمصدر] لكن ليس في الوزن. أقصى وزن تم تسجيله كان190 t (210 short tons) لعينة قياس 30 m (98 ft)، في حين يصل الأطول منها إلى أكثر من 33.3 m (109 ft)، تم تسجيلهم ولم يتم وزنهم.

فيل الأحراش الأفريقي (Loxodonta africana)، من رتبة الفيليات، من أكبر الحيوانات الحية على الأرض. ويصل وزن فيل الأحراش الأفريقي عند مولده إلى 100 kg (220 lb). أكبر فيل تم تسجيله قتل في أنجولا عام 1974. كان ذكرا ووصل وزنه إلى 12,272 kg (27,055 lb)، وكان إجماله طوله (من الجذع إلى الذيل) 10.6 m (35 ft) وإرتفاع كتفيه 4.2 m (14 ft).

  • Monotreme mammals (Monotremata)

The largest extant monotreme is the Western Long-beaked Echidna weighing up to 16.5 kg (36.4 lb) and measuring 1 m (3.3 ft) long.[10] The largest monotreme (egg-bearing mammal) ever was the extinct echidna species Zaglossus hacketti, known only from a few bones found in Western Australia. It was the size of a sheep, weighing probably up to 100 kg (220 lb).

  • الجيبيات (Marsupialia)

القنغر الأحمر (Macropus rufus) is the largest living marsupial. The maximum size of these lanky mammals is 100 kg (220 lb) and 1.92 m (6.3 ft) tall.[11] Many much larger marsupials existed prehistorically, the largest of which was Diprotodon. This rhino-sized herbivore would have easily exceed 2 tonnes (4,400 lb), 3.3 m (11 ft) in length and 1.83 m (6 ft) in height. The Tasmanian Devil is the largest living carnivorous marsupial. The maximum size of these stocky mammals is 10 kg (22.2 lb) and 91 cm (3 ft) long. The largest ever carnivorous marsupial to exist would have been the Marsupial Lion and the Saber-toothed Marsupial both ranging from 5 ft (1.5 m) to 6 ft (1.8 m) long and weighing between 100 kg to 160 kg.

  • Non-Paenungulate Afrotherians (Afroinsectiphilia)

The largest species of this clade (which also contains elephant shrews, tenrecs and golden moles) is the آردڤارك. Aardvarks are typically up to 1.3 m in length with a weight of up to 65 kg, although individuals as large as 100 kg (220 lb) are recorded.[12]

The African Bush Elephant, the largest living terrestrial animal.
  • Even-toed Ungulates (Artiodactyla)

أكبر الأنواع من حيب الوزن هو فرس النهر (Hippopotamus amphibius)، إذ يصل وزنه الأقصى 4,500 كج (10,000 رطل)، وطوله 4.8 م (16 ق) وعرضه 1.66 م (5.5 ق) tall.[13] أطول الأنواع جسماً، وأعلى الحيوانات الأرضية قامةً، هي الزرافة (Giraffa camelopardalis), measuring up to 5.8 m (19.3 ft), and despite being relatively slender, reaching a top weight of 2,000 kg (4,850 lb).[14]

  • آكلات اللحوم (Carnivora)

The largest species is now, with the inclusion of the Pinnipedia, the Southern Elephant Seal (Mirounga leonina) from the Phocidae family. The top size recorded for this species was 5,000 kg (11,000 lb) and 6.9 m (22.5 ft) long. The largest living land carnivores are the Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus) and the Brown Bear (Ursus arctos), both from the Ursidae family and both exceptionally exceeding 1 tonne (2,205 lb), 3 m (10 ft) long, and 1.5 m (5 ft) tall at the shoulder. The extinct Giant Short-Faced Bear (Arctodus simus) may be the largest land carnivore in the order (as well as the largest bear) with an estimated average weight of 600-800 kg (1,320-1,760 lbs)[15]. The largest living member of the Felidae family is the Siberian Tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) subspecies, which has an average weight of around 227 kg (500 lb) for males, but can reach around 272-306 kg (600-675 lb) and weights up to 384 kg (845 lb) are unconfirmed. Even larger were the extinct American Lion (Panthera leo atrox) and the Smilodon populator, a saber-toothed cat. The Liger (Panthera tigris × Panthera leo), the zoo-kept crossbreed of a male Lion and a female Tiger, can reach an obese 798 kg (1,756 lb)[بحاجة لمصدر], and a length of 3.05 m (10 ft).

  • الحيتان (Cetacea)

The largest whale and animal is the aforementioned blue whale, a baleen whale (Mysticeti). The largest toothed whale (Odontoceti) is the Sperm Whale, bulls of which range usually range up to 18 metres (59.5 ft) and a mass of 50 tonnes (55 tons), but may possibly grow considerably larger. The Orca or Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) is the largest species of the oceanic dolphin family (Delphinidae). Males normally grow from 6.5-8 m long (20-25 ft) and weigh in excess of 6 tonnes; it has been reported that especially large males have reached nearer 8 tonnes. Females are smaller, growing from 5.7-7m (18-22 ft) and a weight of about 5 tonnes. The longest Orca ever recorded was a male off the coast of Japan, measuring 9.8 m (32 ft).

  • الخفافيش (Chiroptera)

The largest bat species is the Giant golden-crowned flying fox (Acerodon jubatus), a rare fruit bat and endangered species that is part of the megabat family. The maximum size is believed to approach 1.5 kg (3.3 lb), 55 cm (22 in) long, and the wingspan may be almost 1.8 m (6 ft). The Spectral Bat (Vampyrum spectrum), averaging 168 grams (6 oz), 13.5 cm (5.3 in) and about 80 cm (32 in) in wingspan, is believed to be the largest carnivorous bat, belonging to the microbat family.

  • الأرماديلو (Cingulata)

The extant giant of this group is the Giant Armadillo (Priodontes maximus). The top size for this species is 60 kg (132 lb) and 1.5 m (5 ft) in length. Much larger prehistoric examples are known, especially Glyptodon, which easily topped 2.7 m (9 ft) and 2 tonnes (4,400 lb).

  • Colugos (Dermoptera)

Of the two colugo species in the order Dermoptera of gliding arboreal mammals in southeast Asia, the largest and most common is the Sunda Flying Lemur (Cynocephalus varigatus). The maximum size is 2 kg (4.4 lb) and 73 cm (29 in).

  • Hedgehogs, Gymnures, Shrews, and Moles (Erinaceomorpha & Soricomorpha). The largest of these two orders of small mammals is the Greater Moonrat (Echinosorex gymnura), the maximum size of which is over 2 kg (4.4 lb) and 60 cm (24 in).
  • Hyraxes (Hyracoidea)

The largest species of hyrax seems to be the Cape Hyrax (Procavia capensis), at up to 5.4 kg (12 lb) and 73 cm (29 in) long.

  • الأرانب وHares, & Pikas (Lagomorpha)

The largest species is the Flemish Giant, which is up to 12.7 kg (28 lbs), the European Hare (Lepus europaeus), is up to 6.6 kg (14.6 lb) and 76 cm (30 in) long.

  • Odd-toed Ungulates (Perissodactyla)

The largest extant species is the White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum). The largest size this species can attain is 4,500 kg (10,000 lb), 4.7 m (15.5 ft) long, and 2 m (6.6 ft) tall.[16]. It is slightly larger than the Indian Rhinoceros. The largest land mammal ever was Paraceratherium or Indricotherium (formerly known as the Baluchitherium), a member of this order. It stood up to 5.5 m (18 ft) tall, measured over 9 m (30 ft) long and may have weighed up to 20 tonnes (22 tons) though mass estimates vary widely.

  • Pangolins (Pholiodata)

The largest species of scaly anteater is the Giant Pangolin (Manis gigantea), at up to 1.7 m (5.8 ft) and at least 40 kg (88 lb).

  • آكل النمل و الكسلان (Pilosa)

The largest species is easily the Giant Anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla). A large adult can weigh as much as 65 kg (143 lb) and measure 2.4 m (8 ft) in overall length. The sloths attained much larger sizes prehistorically, the largest of which were Megatherium which, at an estimated average weight of 4.5 tonnes (5 tons) and height of 5.1 m (17 ft), كان تقريباً في نفس حجم فيل الأحراض الأفريقي.

The Eastern Lowland Gorilla is the largest living primate.
  • الرئيسيات (Primates)

The Eastern Lowland Gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri) is the largest living primate. The maximum size of a male gorilla can be over 225 kg (500 lb) and 1.83 m (6 ft) in the wild, with much heavier weights recorded in captivity. Gigantopithecus is the largest known primate ever, probably averaged 3 m (10 ft) tall and weighing 300 to 550 kg (700 to 1,200 lb). It lived from around five million years ago to about 300,000 years ago in the region of الهند and China.

Contrary to popular belief, most extinct species in the order Proboscidea, such as mammoths and mastodons, did not dwarf the modern African Bush Elephant. The Imperial Mammoth, standing up to 5 m (16 ft) tall, and Deinotherium, which may have surpassed 14 tonnes (15.4 tons) are generally considered the largest species. However, recent evidence shows that the largest mammoth ever was the Songhua River Mammoth[بحاجة لمصدر] of China. Mammuthus trogontherii and Deinotherium were also enormous, rivaling the Songhua River Mammoth in size. While African elephants do not normally exceed 7 tonnes in weight, some 'freak' specimens can exceed 12 tonnes, placing the modern African elephant in the list of the largest probiscids ever.

  • القوارض (Rodentia)

The largest living rodent is the capybara, native to most of the tropical and temperate parts of South America east of the Andes, always near water. Full-grown capybaras can reach a top size of 80 kg (180 lb), 1.5 m (4.9 ft) long, and 90 cm (3.0 ft). The largest known rodent ever is Josephoartigasia monesi, an extinct species known only from fossils. It was approximately 3 metres (10 ft) long and 1.5 metres (5 ft) tall, and is estimated to have weighed around 1 tonne.[17] Prior to the description of J. monesi, the largest known rodent species was Phoberomys insolita. However, this species is known only from very incomplete remains and so its size cannot be estimated with any precision. An almost complete skeleton of its slightly smaller Late Miocene relative Phoberomys pattersoni was discovered in Venezuela in 2000; it was 3 m (10 ft) long, with an additional 1.5 m (5 ft) tail, and probably weighed around 700 kg (1,540 lb).

  • فويسقات الأشجار (Scandentia)

The largest of the tree shrews seems to be the Common Tree Shrew (Tupaia glis), at up to 187 g (6.6 oz) and 40 cm (17 in).

  • Dugongs and manatees (Sirenia)

The largest living species in the order Sirenia of dugongs and manatees is the West Indian Manatee (Trichechus manatus). The maximum size of this species is 1,590 kg (3,500 lb) and 4.1 m (13.5 ft). However, the extinct Steller's Sea Cow (Hydrodamalis gigas) was much larger, growing up to at least 7.9 m (26 ft) long and weighing up to 11 tonnes (12.1 tons).

الزواحف

The تمساح المياه المالحة أكبر الزواحف الحية.

يعتبر تمساح المياه المالحة (Crocodylus porosus)، رتبة التمساحيات، أكبر الزواحف الحية، حيث يصل أطوال الذكور البالغة من 4.5 إلى 5 م (14.8 إلى 16.5 قدم)، ويصل وزنها إلى أكثر من 1,360 كج(3,000 lb).[18]

أشارت تقارير غير مؤكدة إلى وجود تماسيح يصل طولها إلى أكثر من ذلك، لكن لم يستدل عن وجود وجود تماسيح بأطول تزيد عن 7 م (23 قدم).[2]. ووصلت عينة حية إلى طول 7 م (23 قدم) ووصل وزنها إلى 2,000 كج(4,400 lb)، ومن المتوقع أن تسجل في كتاب جينس للأرقام القياسية.[19]

  • الديناصورات (Dinosauria)
انظر أيضاً: dinosaur size
Now extinct, except for theropod descendants, the Aves.
Scale diagram comparing a human and the largest known dinosaurs of the four suborders.
Size comparison of selected giant sauropod dinosaurs. Bruhathkayosaurus (grey) and Amphicoelias fragillimus (red) size estimates are based on incomplete fossil evidence.
All of the largest dinosaurs, and the largest animals to ever live on land, were the plant-eating Sauropoda. The tallest and heaviest sauropod known from a complete skeleton is the Brachiosaurus which was discovered in Tanzania between 1907 and 1912, and is now mounted in the Humboldt Museum of Berlin. It is 12 m (38 ft) tall, and probably weighed between 30,000 - 60,000 kg (30 - 65 tons). The longest is the 27 m (89 ft) long Diplodocus which was discovered in وايومنگ, and mounted in Pittsburgh's Carnegie Natural History Museum in 1907.


الطيور

النعامة أكبر طائر على الأرض.

تعتبر النعامة (Struthio camelus) أكبر طائر حي على الأرض ، وهي أحد أفراد Struthioniformes، ويصل إرتفاعها إلى 2.7 م (9 قدم) ووزنها إلى أكثر من 156 كج (345 lb).[20] وقد تزن بيضة النعامة 1.4 كج(3 lb) وهي أكبر بيضة في عالم اليوم (وهي أيضا أكبر خلية لأي عضية، بالرغم من أن طحلب البحر Caulerpa يمكن إعتباره أنشط الخلايا أيضيا.

البرمائيات

A giant salamander, the largest of the surviving amphibians.

The largest living amphibian is the Chinese Giant Salamander (Andrias davidianus). The maximum size of this river-dweller is 64 kg (140 lb) and 1.83 m (6 ft). Before amniotes became the dominant tetrapods, several giant amphibian-like tetrapods existed. The largest known was the crocodile-like Prionosuchus, which reached a length of 9 m (30 ft).

  • الضفادع (Anura)

Easily the largest member of the largest order of amphibians is the African Goliath frog (Conraua goliath). The maximum size of this species is a weight of 3.8 kg (8.4 lb) and a snout-to-vent length of 35 cm (14 in). The largest of the toads is the Cane Toad. However, the extinct Beelzebufo ampinga could grow to be 40 cm (16 in) long and weigh up to 4.5 kg (10 lb).

  • Caecilian (Gymnophiana)

The largest of the worm-like caecilians is the Thomson’s Caecilian (Caecilia thompsoni), which reaches a length of 1.5 m (5 ft) and can weigh up to about 1 kg (2.2 lb).

الأسماك العظمية شعاعية الزعانف (Actinopterygii)

The ocean sunfish is the largest of the bony fish

The largest living bony fish is the ocean sunfish (Mola mola), a member of the order Tetraodontiformes. Sunfish have been recorded at sizes as large as a length of nearly 3.6 m (12 ft), a height of 4.5 m (15 ft) from fin to fin and a weight of about 2,273 kg (5,000 lb). Much larger bony fish existed prehistorically, the largest ever known having been Leedsichthys, of the Jurassic period. Estimates of the size of this fish range from 13.5 m (45 ft) to 30 m (100 ft), but a maximum size of 22 m (72 ft) seems most realistic.

  • Sturgeons (Acipenseriformes)


الأسماك الغضروفية (Chondrichthyes)

A size comparison of a whale shark and a human.

The largest living cartilaginous fish, of the order Orectolobiformes, is the whale shark, verified in size at up to 13.6 m (45 ft) long and 22 tons (44,000 lb). There are many accounts of larger whale sharks, but most are probably overestimated.

جدول أكبر الحيوانات الأرضية

القائمة التالية لأثقل حيوانات على الأرض. وقد تم إدراج حيوان الفظ بها لأنه يقضي وقت كبير على البر. The African Elephant is not split into its possible separate species of the فيل الأحراش الأفريقي و فيل الغابات الأفريقي as it is not yet a fully accepted split.


الرتبة الحيوان متوسط الوزن (رطل) أقصى وزن (رطل) متوسط الطول (ق.)
1 الفيل الأفريقي[21] 18,500 (8500 kg) 27,000 (13000 kg) 21.85
2 الفيل الآسيوي[22] 8,750 (4200 kg) 11,000 (5200 kg) 9.5
3 الكركدن الأبيض 5,000 (2350 kg) 7,920 (3850 kg) 12.5
4 فرس النهر 5,250 (2500 kg) 7,100 (3400 kg) 11
5 Gaur 3,300 (1600 kg) Unknown 9.8
6 الزرافة 3,000 (1400 kg) 4,400 (2100 kg) 15.4
7 الفظ 2,645 (1200 kg) 4,500 (2150 kg) 11
8 الكركدن الأسود 2,420 (1150 kg) 4,000 (1900 kg) 11.25
9 تمساح الماء المالح 1,700 (785 kg) 3,300 (1600 kg) 20
10 جاموس الماء الآسيوي البري 1,684 (770 kg) 2,640 (1250 kg) 11.4

اللافقاريات

الإسفنجيات (Porifera)

Arguably the most primitive form of animals in existence, the largest species of sponge is the barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta. These massively-built sponges can reach 2.42 m (8 ft) in height and can be of about the same number of feet across the thickest part of the "body".


مفصليات الأرجل (Arthropoda)

In terms of overall size, the Japanese spider crab is the largest of all arthropods.

The Japanese spider crab, Macrocheira kaempferi, a crustacean of the class Malacostraca, is the largest arthropod in the world in overall size, weighing up to 20 kg (44 lb), having a body up to 60 cm (2 ft) long and having a leg span of almost 4 m (13 ft). It is indisputably the largest member of Brachyura (crabs).


الحشرات

The goliath beetle is arguably the world's heaviest insect

Insects, which are a type of arthropod, are easily the most numerous group of organisms on the planet, with about a million species identified so far. The title of heaviest insect in the world has many rivals, the most frequently-crowned of which is the larval stage of the goliath beetle, Goliathus goliatus, the top size of which is at least 115 g (4.1 oz) and 11.5 cm (4.5 in).[23] The largest confirmed weight of an adult insect is 71 grams for a giant weta, Deinacrida heteracantha,[24] although it is likely one of the elephant beetles, Megasoma elephas & Megasoma actaeon, or goliath beetles, both of which can commonly exceed 50 g (3 oz) and 10 cm (4 in), can reach a higher weight.

The longest insects are the stick insects, see below.

النباتات

General Sherman tree from Sequoia National Park

The largest single-stem plants are all members of the conifer division. By volume and mass, the largest tree is the Giant Sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum). They grow to an average height of 70 - 85 m (230 - 280 ft) and 5 - 7 m (16 - 23 ft) in diameter. Specimens have been recorded to be up to 94.9 m (307 ft) in height and (not the same individual) 8.98 m (29 ft) in diameter; the largest individual is the General Sherman tree, with a volume of 1,489 m3.[25] Although not so large in volume, the closely related Coast Redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) is taller, reaching a maximum height of 115.55 m (379.1 ft)[26]. These trees dwarf any other non-communal organism, as even the largest Blue Whales are likely to weigh one-sixteenth as much as a large Giant Sequoia or Coast Redwood. See record trees for other tree records.

  • الطحالب


الفطريات

فطر العسل Armillaria mellea

أكبر فطر حي قد يكون فطر العسل[27] من نوع Armillaria ostoyae.[28]

الممالك الأخرى

  • Protists

Among the organisms that are not multicellular, the largest are the slime moulds, such as Physarum polycephalum, some of which can cover an area more than 1,000 cm2 (1 sq ft). The largest species traditionally considered protozoa are giant amoeboids like foraminiferans. One such species, the xenophyophore Syringammina fragilissima, can attain a size of 20 cm (8 in). The largest ciliates, such as Stentor, can attain a length over 1 mm. The largest stramenopiles are the giant kelps, Macrocystis pyrifera, which can grow to a height of over 45 m (150 ft).

  • Bacteria

The largest species of bacterium ever discovered is Thiomargarita namibiensis, which grows to 0.75 mm (0.03 in) in diameter, making it visible to the naked eye and up to a million times the size of more typical bacteria.

  • Viruses

The largest known virus is the mimivirus (the Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus), with mature particles of 400 nm in diameter (icosahedral capsid), 800,000 bases and 900 genes. Later research suggested that it could be up to 800 nm long, 1.2 Mbp and 1,260 genes.

انظر أيضاً

الهامش

  1. ^ Consensus Document on the Biology of Populus، منظمة التعاون الاقتصادي والتنمية (.doc file)
  2. ^ Quaking Aspen by the Bryce Canyon خدمة المتنزهات الوطنية
  3. ^ largest living thing
  4. ^ The Humongous Fungus--Ten Years Later at the University of Wisconsin, Department of Botany. Accessed 20 August 2005.
  5. ^ Beale, Bob. 10 April 2003. Humungous fungus: world's largest organism? at Environment & Nature News, ABC Online. Accessed 20 August 2005.
  6. ^ Ibiza's Monster Marine Plant. Ibiza Spotlight, 28 May 2006.
  7. ^ The General Sherman Tree, Sequoia National Park at the National Park Service. Accessed 20 August 2005.
  8. ^ superlative trees
  9. ^ Hokkanen, J.E.I. (21 February 1986). "The size of the largest land animal". Journal of Theoretical Biology. Elsevier Ltd. Volume 118, Issue 4: 491–499. doi:10.1016/S0022-5193(86)80167-9.  Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Helsinki.
  10. ^ <http://rarestzoo.blogspot.com/2006/07/long-beaked-echidna.html>
  11. ^ <http://www.helium.com/items/891104-kangaroo-largest-species-kangaroos>
  12. ^ ADW: Orycteropus afer: Information
  13. ^ ADW: Hippopotamus amphibius: Information
  14. ^ African giraffes endangered | Environment | Reuters
  15. ^ [1] BBC Wildfacts
  16. ^ "African Rhinoceros". Safari Now. Retrieved 2008-03-19. 
  17. ^ خطأ لوا في وحدة:Citation/CS1 على السطر 3565: bad argument #1 to 'pairs' (table expected, got nil).
  18. ^ Crocodylus porosus (Schneider, 1801), by Adam Britton from the Crocodilian Species List.
  19. ^ http://news.boloji.com/200701/00800.htm
  20. ^ birding.com records
  21. ^ فيل الأحراش الأفريقي
  22. ^ الفيل الآسيوي
  23. ^ Goliath Beetle
  24. ^ David M. Williams (2001-04-21). "Chapter 30 — Largest Insect". Book of Insect Records. University of Florida. 
  25. ^ Gymnosperm Database: Sequoiadendron giganteum
  26. ^ Redwood, Sequoia sempervirens
  27. ^ Mycologist's site about giant Armillaria in Michigan's Upper Peninsula
  28. ^ BBC News report about the largest Armillaria in the world

المصادر

  • Wood, The Guinness Book of Animal Facts and Feats. Sterling Pub Co Inc (1983), ISBN 978-0851122359
  • [3]
  • IUCN African Elephant Specialist Group (AfESG): Statement on the Taxonomy of extant Loxodonta (February, 2006).