أدونيس

هذه المقالة عن أدونيس الآلهة الإغريقية. إذا كنت تبحث عن أدونيس الشاعر السوري، انظر أدونيس (شاعر).
أدونيس و أفروديت على جرة تعود إلى عام 410 ق.م.، محفوظة في اللوڤر.

أدونيس (Adonis) هو معشوق الإلهة أفروديت. وهو إله الربيع والإخصاب لدي الإغريق . وكان يصور كشاب رائع الجمال.

أحبت عشتورت أدوني (أي الرب)؛ وكان يحتفل في بيبلوس، وباثوس (في قبرص) كل عام بمقتله على أنياب خنزير بري بالنحيب وضرب الصدور. وكان من حسن حظ أدني أنه يقوم من بين الأموات كلما فارق الحياة، ويصعد إلى السماء على مشهد من عُبَّاده.

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الأساطير

ڤينوس وأدونيس، بريشة أنيبالى كراتشي (1560-1609)، رسام الباروك الإيطالي
نهر إبراهيم (لبنان)، أحد المواقع المزعومة لأدونيس
مصرع أدونيس - المتحف الگريگوري الإتروسكي (الڤاتيكان).

النسخة الأكثر تفصيلاً والأرفع أدباً لقصة أدونيس هي نسخة متأخرة، في الجزء العاشر من كتاب أوڤيد، التحولات.[1]




أصل عبادته

Venus and Cupid lamenting the dead Adonis, 1656, Cornelis Holsteyn

In Greek mythology, Adonis was from Phoenicia. He was born and died at the foot of the falls in the village of Afqa, located in the Jbeil District of the Mount Lebanon Governorate, 71 kilometres (44 mi) northeast of Beirut in modern-day Lebanon. The ruins of the celebrated temple of Aphrodite Aphakitis— the Aphrodite particular to this site— are located there.

The name Adonis is derived from the Semitic word adon, which means "lord".[2][3] There is not a single, specific Semitic deity from whom Adonis is clearly derived,[4] but, in practice, the cult of Adonis is generally stated to correspond with the cult of the earlier Semitic god Tammuz, whose cult was derived from the even earlier cult of the Sumerian god Dumuzid the Shepherd, the consort of the goddess Inanna.[5] The cult of Adonis has also been described as corresponding to the cult of the Phoenician god Baal.[6] As Walter Burkert explains:

Women sit by the gate weeping for Tammuz, or they offer incense to Baal on roof-tops and plant pleasant plants. These are the very features of the Adonis legend: which is celebrated on flat roof-tops on which sherds sown with quickly germinating green salading are placed, Adonis gardens... the climax is loud lamentation for the dead god.[7]

The exact date when the legend of Adonis became integrated into Greek culture is still disputed. Walter Burkert questions whether Adonis had not from the very beginning come to Greece with Aphrodite.[8] "In Greece," Burkert concludes, "the special function of the Adonis legend is as an opportunity for the unbridled expression of emotion in the strictly circumscribed life of women, in contrast to the rigid order of polis and family with the official women's festivals in honour of Demeter." Both Greek and Near Eastern scholars have questioned this connection.[9]

الطوائف الغامضة

The Death of Adonis, by Giuseppe Mazzuoli, 1709 (متحف هرميتاج)
ڤينوس وأدونيس، بريشة فرانسوا لوموان


الاشارات الثقافية

In relatively modern times, the myth of Adonis has featured prominently in a variety of cultural and artistic works. Giovan Battista Marino's masterpiece, Adone, published in 1623, is a long, sensual poem, which elaborates the myth of Adonis, and represents the transition in Italian literature from Mannerism to the Baroque. Percy Bysshe Shelley wrote the poem Adonais for John Keats, and uses the myth as an extended metaphor for Keats' death.
مصرع أدونيس، بريشة لوكا جوردانو.
Such allusions continue today. Adonis (an Arabic transliteration of the same name, أدونيس) is the pen name of a famous الشاعر السوري، علي أحمد سعيد أسبر. His choice of name relates especially to the rebirth element of the myth of Adonis (also called "Tammuz" in Arabic), which was an important theme in mid-20th century Arabic poetry, chiefly amongst followers of the "Free Verse" (الشعر الحر) movement founded by Iraqi poet بدر شاكر السياب.[بحاجة لمصدر] Adunis has used the myth of his namesake in many of his poems, for example in "Wave I", from his most recent book "Start of the Body, End of the Sea" (مكتبة الساقي، 2002), which includes a complete retelling of the birth of the god.[مطلوب توضيح]

انظر أيضاً

Psychology:

Notes

  1. ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses X, 519–741
  2. ^ West, M. L. (1997). The East Face of Helicon: West Asiatic Elements in Greek Poetry and Myth. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press. p. 57. ISBN 0-19-815221-3. Retrieved 30 May 2017. 
  3. ^ "Britannica Library". library.eb.com (in English). Retrieved 2017-02-02. 
  4. ^ R. S. P. Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Brill, 2009, p. 23.
  5. ^ West, M. L. (1997). The East Face of Helicon: West Asiatic Elements in Greek Poetry and Myth. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press. p. 57. ISBN 0-19-815221-3. Retrieved 30 May 2017. 
  6. ^ West, M. L. (1997). The East Face of Helicon: West Asiatic Elements in Greek Poetry and Myth. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press. p. 57. ISBN 0-19-815221-3. Retrieved 30 May 2017. 
  7. ^ Burkert, p. 177.
  8. ^ Burkert 1985, p. 17.
  9. ^ Burkert, p 177 note 6 bibliography


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References

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