DCNS (شركة) - DCNS (company)

هذه صفحة مكتوبة بالعربية البسيطة، انظر الصفحة الأصلية
DCNS .
النوعشركة عامة
الصناعةالدفاع
تأسست1631; 390 years ago (1631
المقر الرئيسي،
نطاق الخدمةالعالم
الأشخاص الرئيسيون
إرفيه غيو (CEO)
المنتجاتسفن دورية، حراقات، فرقاطات ومدمرات وLHD، وحاملات طائرات وغواصات (SSK, SSN, SSBN)
الدخل3,36 بليون يورو (2013)
104,1 مليون (2013)
المالكAPE: 64%
طالس: 35%
DCNS Actionnariat: 1%
الموظفون13,648 (حول العالم) (2013)
الشعارSea the future
الموقع الإلكترونيwww.dcnsgroup.com

DCNS هي مجموعة صناعية فرنسية متخصصة في الدفاع البحري والطاقة. توظف المجموعة أكثر من 13,000 شخص في 10 دول. DCNS، هي شركة حسب القانون الخاص، تملك الدولة الفرنسية حصة 64% فيها، وطالس 35% والعاملون 1% ، هي وريث أرصفة بناء السفن للبحرية الفرنسية و “Direction des Constructions et Armes Navales” (DCAN)، التي أصبحت DCN ‏(“Direction des Constructions Navales”) في 1991 و DCNS منذ 2007.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

التاريخ[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

لشركة DCNS تراث مستمر على مدى 380 عام. فأحواض بناء السفن الكبرى أنشئت في فرنسا في رُوِل (1751)، نانت-آندريه (1771)، لوريان (1778) ولاحقاً في شربورغ (1813). وتبعهم آخرون. ومنذ 1926، فإن ما نعرفها اليوم بإسم DCNS كان لديها المنشآت التي تملكها المجموعة في البر الرئيسي لفرنسا.


مولد أحواض بناء السفن للبحرية[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

في 1624، وضع الكاردينال ريشليو، الذي كان رئيس وزراء الملك لويس الثالث عشر آنئذ، سياسة بحرية نكـّنت من إنشاء أحواض بناء السفن لإعطاء فرنسا قوة بحرية كافية لمنافسة إنغلترة. تلك السياسة بدأ تنفيذها في 1631، بخلق أسطول بونان Ponant في الأطلسي وأسطول المشرق في المتوسط وأحواض برست لبناء السفن وتوسيع أحواض بناء السفن في تولون، التي أنشئت في عهد هنري الرابع.[1]

السياسة واصلها كولبير، وزير بحرية لويس الرابع عشر، الذي شيد العديد من أحواض بناء السفن. وقام بتوسيع أحواض بناء السفن في تولون، وأمر بحفر أرصفة في برست وأسس أحواض بناء السفن في روشفور. وتابع إبنه، سينلاي Seignelay، الذي خلفه في 1683، خطى ابيه.[2]

أصبحت شبكة أحواض بناء السفن للبحرية الملكية الفرنسية أشد قوة في القرن الثامن عشر. وفي 1750، حوّل مركيز مونتالمبير مصنع ورق سابق إلى حدادة لانتاج المدافع في رُوِل-سور-توفر. وفي 1777، افتتح أنطوان دى سارتين، وزير بحرية لويس السادس عشر، مسبك مدافع بالقرب من أحواض بناء السفن في آندريه. وفي نفس العام، بدأ العمل في إنشاء ميناء في شربورغ، الذي اكتمل في 1813. وفي 1778، تلت أحواض بناء السفن في لوريان “La Compagnie des Indes du port de L’Orient”.[3]

أحواض بناء السفن في روشفور أغلقت أبوابها في 1926. وفي 1937، المؤسسة في سان-تروبيه فتحت أبوابها في الموقع السابق لشركة شنايدر، التي تخصصت في الطوربيدات. وبحلول ذلك الوقت، فقد كانت معظم المواقع الفرنسية لشركة DCNS’ موجودة، ولم يتغيروا منذ ذلك الحين.

التمصنع والابداعات التقنية[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

During the 19th century, the naval dockyards underwent a transformation as the fleet of sailing ships was replaced by motorised vessels. The sites were industrialised and gradually specialised. In 1865, the naval dockyards in Brest became exclusively military, with the closure of the Penfeld port to commercial vessels. In 1898, after specialising in the building of vessels with propellers rather than sails, the shipyards in Cherbourg were tasked exclusively with the construction of submarines. Finally, in 1927, a decree definitively laid out the missions of the various naval dockyards:[4] Brest and Lorient were tasked with the construction of large vessels, Cherbourg with building submarines، بينما كانت تولون وبنزرت وسايغون مسئولات عن صيانة الأسطول.

This rationalisation of the roles of the naval dockyards was accompanied by technical and military innovations and the production of vessels at a higher pace, against the backdrop of an arms race and colonisation. In 1858, Gloire, the first ocean-going battleship in the world sailed out of the dockyards in Toulon. The 1860s saw the arrival of the first torpedo boats and military submarines, with the launch of Plongeur in 1863. The technical problems experienced by this first-ever motorised submarine meant that it remained a prototype rather than an operational war vessel. But it did open the way for the construction of Gymnote in 1886 and Le Narval in 1899, which were the first operational torpedo submarines in history.

The production of heavy surface vessels was also stepped up in the 1910s. Several battleships were built before the start of the First World War, and the fleet was strengthened by the 35,000-ton Richelieu in 1939.

إعادة تنظيم الأنشطة[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

In 1946, a review of the French naval dockyards completed the attributions of the various sites announced in the 1927 decree. Brest was tasked with the production and repair of large vessels, Lorient with the construction of medium-sized vessels, Cherbourg with submarines and Toulon with repairing and maintaining the fleet. Amongst the inland sites, Indret took over the vessel propulsion activities, Ruelle the construction of guns, large parts and electronics, Saint-Tropez the production of torpedoes and Guérigny the construction of naval chains and anchors. Five sites are located overseas: المرسة الكبير وبنزرت ودكار ودييغو-سواريز و بابيتى.

Until 1961, the French navy maintained and repaired its fleet itself, through the “Directions des Constructions et Armes Navales” (DCAN) in the naval dockyards. The engineers working in the DCANs were officers in the French navy’s engineering division. At this time, the dockyards broke away from the Navy, creating the opportunity for the diversification of their activities in the 1970s.

A single DCAN covered all the mainland and overseas naval dockyards, reporting to the “Direction Technique des Constructions Navales” (DTCN). In turn, the DTCN was answerable to the “Délégation Ministérielle pour l’Armement” (DMA), set up by Michel Debré. In 1977, la DMA became the “Délégation Générale de l’Armement” (DGA). The purpose of this reform was to centralise all the armed forces’ design and construction capacities in a single inter-armed forces delegation operating under the government’s authority.[5]

In 1958, the official launch by General de Gaulle of the French military nuclear programme and deterrent policy prompted the restructuring of the defence industry and defence technology.

The Cœlacanthe project brought together the DTCN and the CEA, and in 1971, Le Redoutable, the first French missile-launching nuclear submarine, came into service.


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

التحول إلى شركة[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

The international economic climate and decolonisation in the 1970s lead the DCAN to venture into new markets. The loss of the overseas naval dockyards was compounded by the French Navy’s reduced needs for vessels and the increased difficulty in obtaining funding. This trend gathered more pace after the end of the Cold War, despite the diversification of the DCAN activities, which now included maintaining the electric power network and clearing mines from the coastline. Some sites also specialised in civilian projects: Brest built trucks, Guérigny made agricultural machinery and Toulon produced civilian vessels (yachts, liners).

But, looking beyond the order books, it was the public status of the DCAN that was gradually called into question, and it came to be considered as an administrative obstacle to the development of the potential of France’s naval dockyards.

This transformation occurred in several stages. In 1991, the DCAN was christened the DCN (Direction des Construction Navales). In the same year, DCN International was created. The mission of this PLC was to promote the activities of the DCN on an international scale and to facilitate the export of its products.

In 1992, the DCN’s activities for the state were attached to the Naval Programmes department (SPN), which was the contracting authority for vessels for the French navy. Since then, the DCN has only been responsible for industrial activities, while remaining part of the DGA. This change of status has allowed DCN International to provide the DCN with commercial and legal support in the development of its international trade since the end of the 1990s.

The development strategy pursued by DCN International resulted in the signing of several major contracts. In 1994, three Agosta submarines were delivered to Pakistan, and, in 1997, two Scorpène submarines were built for Chile. A contract was also won in 2000 to supply six Formidable-type frigates to Singapore. In 2007, a contract was signed with Malaysia for two Scorpène submarines, through the subsidiary Armaris.[6]

The DCN has also won contracts in the field of off-shore drilling for oil. In 1997, the Brest site modernised the Sedco 707 platform and now builds SFX type oil rigs.[7]

In 1999, the DCN became an agency with national authority (SCN), reporting directly to the Ministry of Defence. Finally, in 2001, the French government decided to transform the DCN into a fully state-owned private limited company. The change of status came into effect in 2003. The DCN became just DCN, which no longer stood for “Direction des Constructions Navales”.

تطوير مجموعة DCNS[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

In 2007, DCN acquired the French naval activities branch of Thales, Armaris, a former subsidiary that was equally shared between DCN and Thales, and MOPA2, the company in charge of the project to build a second aircraft carrier. To stress its new identity, the resulting group was named DCNS. Thales acquired a 25% stake in the group’s capital. In 2011, Thales increased its share of DCNS' capital to 35%.[8]

Construction of the stealthy multi-function frigates (FREMM) started in 2007. In 2008, an aerial drone landed on the deck of a frigate at sea for the first time in history. In 2013, the group set up DCNS Research to promote its research activities. DCNS India was founded in 2008, thanks to two contracts signed in 2005 and 2008 for the delivery of six conventional Scorpène submarines. Similarly, in 2013, a submarine construction site was opened in Brazil. The group created the DCNS University in 2013 to deliver internal and external training.

الأنشطة[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

DCNS’ activities can be broken down into two main sectors: naval defence, the group’s historical core business (ships, submarines, operational readiness management of the forces), and energy and marine infrastructures (renewable marine energies, civilian nuclear energy, construction of naval bases and electric power plants).

الدفاع البحري[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

DCNS designs, develops and manages the operational readiness of surface and underwater naval systems, and of their associated systems and infrastructures. As a project manager and integrator of armed vessels, DCNS intervenes all along the value chain, from strategic programme planning, to design, construction and the management of operational readiness.

The group works with the French navy and other navies, for conventional products, and with the authorisation of the French government. It also offers its military expertise to the French Air Force to design automated navigation and combat systems, and to renovate aircraft.


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

الأنظمة البحرية السطحية[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

FS Surcouf.jpg
RSS Formidable (68) and INS Brahmaputra (F 31).jpg
Forbin-090531-N-9988F-406.jpg
Charles De Gaulle (R91) underway 2009.jpg
الفرقاطة طراز «لافايت» Surcouf (F711)، 2004 الفرقاطة طراز «فورميدابل» RSS Formidable (68) البحرية السنغافورية، 2007 الفرقاطة طراز «هوريزون» Forbin (D620)‏، 2009 حاملة الطائرات «شارل ديغول»، 2009

الغواصات وأسلحة تحت الماء[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

البنى التحتية الطاقية والبحرية[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

The group collaborates with EDF[مطلوب توضيح], the CEA and AREVA in the construction of EPR power plants and the maintenance of nuclear power plants. The group is also developing a Flexblue immersed, low-power modular reactor project. DCNS also builds thermal electric power plants and naval bases. The group designed the electric power plants in Mayotte, La Réunion and Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon.

DCNS is investing in four renewable marine technologies: marine current turbines, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), floating wind turbines and wave power. Since it gained control of the Irish company OpenHydro in 2013, DCNS has been able to progress from the research and development phase to industrial production.[9]

المسئولية الشركاتية[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

DCNS operates several programmes to promote training and professional integration. The group has signed the “Pacte PME”, which fosters relations between large companies and smaller enterprises and sets up partnerships with leading universities and academic institutions. Between 2006 and 2013, DCNS organised the “Trophée Poséidon” for students in engineering schools, which rewarded student projects in the fields of innovation and the maritime environment.

Since 2008, DCNS has also been running a professional integration programme for both persons with a technical qualification and persons without any qualifications, called the “Filières du Talent DCNS”. In 2010, this programme was rewarded by the “Trophée national 2010 de l’entreprise citoyenne”.[10]

DCNS has also been involved in the world of yachting for many years by sharing its technologies and through its sponsoring and mentoring activities. The group is a partner of the “Grand-Prix de l’École Navale”,[11] a regatta that has been held near the Crozon peninsula since 2001. It has also been a partner of the “Pôle France Voile” in Brest since 2007, and works for the professional integration of former sportsmen and sportswomen.

In 2008, DCNS built the single-hull DCNS 1000, a yacht designed for round-the-world races, which featured in the 2013 film En Solitaire, by Christophe Offenstein, starring François Cluzet.

DCNS also shared its technical expertise in composites for hulls and in navigation systems by building the experimental trimaran L’Hydroptère,[12] and it partnered the Areva Challenge team that took part in the Americas Cup in 2007. The DCNS industrial site in Toulon has been a partner of Toulon rugby club since 2005.[13]

التنظيم[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

DCNS is a private limited company in which the French state holds a 64% stake. The Thales groups holds 35% of the capital, and the remaining 1% is made up of FCPE restricted securities and employee shareholdings. At the end of 2013, DCNS employed 13,648 people, more than half of whom are private sector workers, while the other half are public sector workers. The group is present in 10 countries and has entered several partnerships outside France through its subsidiaries and joint ventures.

الحوكمة[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

  • Chairman and CEO: Hervé Guillou
  • Executive Vice President: Bernard Planchais
  • Deputy Vice President: Bernard Huet

بيانات مالية[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

2012 2013
Turnover (billion €) 3.36 2.93
Firm orders (billion €) 2.53 2.27
Order book (billion €) 14.46 13.22
Operating profit (million €) 208.5 166.4
Net profit (million €) 163.7 104,1

المواقع[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

في فرنسا[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

DCNS operates 12 sites in France. Each site is specialised in a particular activity.

  • Bagneux: information and surveillance systems, military logistics
  • Brest: services, operational readiness of vessels and submarines, maintenance of the Navy’s industrial port infrastructures, renewable marine energies. The site is located in the Brest dockyards and on the Île Longue. It is a stakeholder in “Pôle Mer Bretagne”.
  • Cherbourg: production of submarines
  • Issy-les-Moulineaux: renewable marine energies, civilian nuclear power
  • Le Mourillon: information and surveillance systems
  • Lorient: surface naval defence systems
  • Marseilles: civilian nuclear energy
  • Nantes-Indret: submarines, research and development, nuclear propulsion. Co-founder of the EMC centre of excellence
  • Paris: head office of the group
  • Ruelle-sur-Touvre: submarines, automated systems, simulators, training (Detailed article:
  • Saint-Tropez: underwater weapons (torpedoes)
  • Toulon: services, maintenance of submarines and the Charles de Gaulle aircraft carrier (Detailed article:

حول العالم[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

DCNS has branch offices in Australia, Saudi Arabia, Chile, the United Arab Emirates, Greece, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Norway and Pakistan. The group is also represented all over the world by its subsidiaries and joint ventures, which are wholly owned or operated in association with other companies.[14]

أوروبا[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

  • فرنسا:

Sirehna, a 100% owned subsidiary: naval hydrodynamics, navigation solutions for ships and landing solutions for marine, land or aerial vehicles and drones Défense Environnement Services, a 49%-owned subsidiary, in partnership with Veolia Environnement: multi-service infrastructures Kership, a 45%-owned partnership, with Piriou: medium-tonnage vessels for the French state

  • أيرلندا:

OpenHydro, a 59.7% owned subsidiary: marine current turbines

آسيا-الشرق الأوسط[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

  • السعودية:

DCNS Support, a 100% owned subsidiary: assistance for the DCNS group’s operational readiness missions

  • الهند:

DCNS India, a 100% owned subsidiary: support for technical and research activities in the local naval shipyards

  • ماليزيا:

DCNS Malaysia, a 100% owned subsidiary: assistance for the DCNS in its local activities Boustead DCNS Naval Company, a 40% owned subsidiary, in partnership with Boustead: operational readiness of submarines

  • سنغافورة:

DCNS Far East, a 100% owned subsidiary: logistics and maintenance for naval and air and sea systems

الأمريكتان[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

  • البرازيل:

DCNS do Brazil, a 100% owned subsidiary: the group’s sales office in Brazil Prosin, a 100% owned subsidiary of DCNS do Brazil: naval systems engineering for Brazil Itaguai Construçoes Navais, a 41% owned subsidiary, in partnership with Odebrecht: construction of submarines as part of the contract signed by DCNS with the Brazilian Navy

  • كندا:

DCNS Technologies Canada Inc, a 100% owned subsidiary: the group’s sales office in Canada

جدل[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

قالب:Expand French The DCN / DCNS plays a major role in “one of France's biggest political and financial scandals of the last generation [that left] a trail of eight unexplained deaths, nearly half a billion dollars in missing cash and troubling allegations of government complicity” connected to a sale of warships to Taiwan in the 1990s.[15]

Scorpène submarine before delivery to Malaysia

Apart from the issues surrounding the sale of ships to Taiwan mentioned above, French prosecutors started investigating a wide range of corruption charges in 2010 involving different submarine sales, with possible bribery and kickbacks to top officials in France. In particular interest by the prosecutors are sales of Scorpène submarines to countries like India and Malaysia.[16] The investigation in Malaysia has been prompted by human rights group Suaram as it involved current Prime Minister Najib Tun Razak when he was defence minister and his friend Abdul Razak Baginda[17] whose company Primekar was alleged to be paid a huge commission during the purchase of two Scorpène submarines.[18] French investigators are interested in the fact that Perimekar was formed only a few months before the contract was signed with the Malaysian government and DCNS and that Primekar had no track record in servicing submarines and did not have the financial capability to support the contract.[19] Investigations have also revealed that a Hong Kong-based company called Terasasi Ltd in which the directors are Razak Baginda and his father, sold classified Malaysian navy defence documents to DCNS.[20] Also under scrutiny are allegations of extortion and the murder of Shaariibuugiin Altantuyaa, a translator who worked on the deal.[21]

On 15 December 2015, French courts indicted Bernard Baiocco, former president of Thales International Asia for paying kickbacks to Abdul Razak Baginda. At the same time director of shipbuilder DCN International was indicted for misuse of corporate assets.[22][23][24][25]

On 24 August 2016, it was reported by Australian Media that a 22,000 page report leak has taken place regarding the Scorpene class submarine currently being build by India as a part of 3.5 billion dollar deal.The suspected leak of sensitive information contained information regarding stealth,sensors,noise level of the submarine at different sea depths,acoustic informations etc.[26]

According to Indian Navy, the data leak has been from overseas sources possibly from hacking of sensitive data.[27]

انظر أيضاً[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

الهامش[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

  1. ^ "ASNOM - Association Amicale Santé Navale et d'Outre Mer". Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  2. ^ - Extension on the French dockyards
  3. ^ John Pike. "French Shipbuilding Industry". Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  4. ^ Decree of 22 avril 1927 on the Navy's organization, Journal Officiel de la République Française, 1927
  5. ^ Yves FREVILLE, « La réorganisation du MCO et la création du service de soutien de la flotte », Information report by the French Senate n°426, 2005
  6. ^ "France Submarine Import and Export Behavior - NTI". Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  7. ^ - Global developments spur French contracting business, 1998
  8. ^ "Defense & Security Intelligence & Analysis: IHS Jane's - IHS". Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  9. ^ "DCNS prend le contrôle d'Openhydro". Mer et Marine (in الفرنسية). 2013.
  10. ^ "DCNS reçoit le Trophée National de l'Entreprise Citoyenne". Mer et Marine (in الفرنسية). Retrieved 2014-09-18.
  11. ^ "Partners". GPEN. Retrieved 2014-09-18.
  12. ^ "l'Hydroptère DCNS Hydrofoil Sailboat". Ship Technology (in الفرنسية). Retrieved 2014-09-18.
  13. ^ "Partenariat DCNS". RC Toulon (in الفرنسية). Retrieved 2014-09-18.
  14. ^ Astrid APERT. "DCNS". Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  15. ^ Schofield, Hugh (1 December 2003). "Book delves into frigate scandal". BBC News. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
  16. ^ Asia Sentinel - Malaysia's Submarine Scandal Surfaces in France
  17. ^ "French legal team in Malaysia to probe sub deal". 28 April 2010. Archived from the original on 1 May 2010. The submarine deal was crafted during the tenure of the then-Defence Minister Najib Tun Razak, now prime minister, in 2002. As a result of the pact, RM3.7 billion in commission went to Najib's closest associate Abdul Razak Baginda.
  18. ^ "France probes corruption in arms to Malaysia". Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  19. ^ Malaysians allege graft in French submarine deal - BusinessWeek
  20. ^ "Thank You Malaysia". Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  21. ^ "French judges begins bribery probe". Vancouver Sun. May 7, 2012. Archived from the original on May 13, 2012.
  22. ^ "Thank You Malaysia". Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  23. ^ "Scorpene scandal resurfaces, Suaram vindicated". Free Malaysia Today. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  24. ^ "France opens probe into 'bribery' of Malaysia's Najib Razak". Financial Times. February 4, 2016.
  25. ^ "Contract-winning French sub builder DCNS tied up in deadly Malaysian bribery saga". Sydney Morning Herald. May 23, 2016.
  26. ^ "Over 20,000 pages of top-secret data about India's mega submarine project leaked, says The Australian". Quartz. August 23, 2016.
  27. ^ "'A Case of Hacking': Parrikar on Indian Navy's Submarine Data Leak". August 23, 2016.

للاستزادة[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

قالب:Thales Group

تمّ الاسترجاع من "https://www.marefa.org/DCNS"