كويوس ريجيو ، إيوس دينييو
Cuius regio, eius religio (اللاتينية الكنسية: [ˈkujus ˈredʒi.o ˈejus reˈlidʒi.o]) هي Latin phrase والي يعني حرفياً "أملاكه، دينهم" - وتعني أن دين الحاكم يـُحدد دين المحكومين. كان هذا المبدأ القانوني بمثابة تطور كبير في حرية الاعتقاد الجماعية (وإن لم تكن الفردية) في الحضارة الغربية. فقبل أن يصبح التسامح مع الاختلافات الدينية الفردية مقبولاً، كان معظم رجال الدولة والمنظرين السياسيين يأخذون كمـُسلـَّمة أن التنوع الديني يـُـضعـِف الدولة - and particularly weakened ecclesiastically-transmitted control and monitoring in a state. The principle of "cuius regio" was a compromise in the conflict between this paradigm of statecraft and the emerging trend toward religious pluralism (co-existence within a single territory) developing throughout the German-speaking lands of the Holy Roman Empire. It permitted assortative migration of adherents to just two theocracies, Roman Catholic and Lutheran, eliding other confessions.
At the Peace of Augsburg of 1555, which ended a period of armed conflict between Roman Catholic and Protestant forces within the Holy Roman Empire, the rulers of the German-speaking states and the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, agreed to accept this principle. In practice the principle had already been implemented between the time of the Nuremberg Religious Peace of 1532 and the 1546-1547 Schmalkaldic War. Now legal in the de jure sense, it was to apply to all the territories of the Empire except for the Ecclesiastical principalities and some of the cities in those ecclesiastical states, where the question of religion was addressed under the separate principles of the reservatum ecclesiasticum and the Declaratio Ferdinandei, which also formed part of the Peace of Augsburg. This agreement marked the end of the first wave of organized military action between Protestants and Catholics; however, these principles were factors during the wars of the 1545-1648 Counter-Reformation.
This left out other Reformed forms of Christianity (such as Calvinism) and radical systems such as Anabaptism. However, some non-Lutherans passed for Lutherans with the assistance of the Augsburg Confession Variata. Practices other than the two , which were the most widespread in the Empire, was expressly forbidden and considered by the law to be heretical and could be punishable by death. Although "cuius regio" did not explicitly intend to allow the modern ideal of "freedom of conscience", individuals who could not subscribe to their ruler's religion were permitted to leave his territory with their possessions. Also under the Declaratio Ferdinandei, Lutheran knights were given the freedom to retain their religion wherever they lived. The revocation of the Declaratio Ferdinandei by the Catholics in the 1629 Edict of Restitution helped fuel the Thirty Years War of 1618-1648. The Edict of Restitution itself was overturned in the 1635 Peace of Prague, which restored the 1555 terms of the Peace of Augsburg.
Although some dissenters emigrated, others lived as Nicodemites. Because of geographical and linguistic circumstances on the continent of Europe, emigration was more feasible for Catholics living in Protestant lands than for Protestants living in Catholic lands.[بحاجة لمصدر] As a result, there were more crypto-Protestants than crypto-Papists in continental Europe.
الانقسامات الدينية في الامبراطورية[تحرير | عدل المصدر]
انظر أيضاً[تحرير | عدل المصدر]
- Res publica Christiana, the medieval and Renaissance concept of a united Christendom
الهامش[تحرير | عدل المصدر]
Finkelman, Paul (2012). "Toleration and Diversity in New Netherland and the Duke's Colony: the roots of America's first disestablishment". In Gunn, T. Jeremy; Witte, John (eds.). No Establishment of Religion: America's Original Contribution to Religious Liberty. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199986019. Retrieved 17 November 2019.
At the beginning of the seventeenth century [...] virtually all European political leaders accepted the idea that religious diversity was dangerous to the stability of any government. [...] Political leaders and political theorists alike assumed that religious difference would inevitably lead to internal social conflict or even civil war and anarchy. The brutal wars of the sixteenth century certainly reinforced this idea. [...] Religious diversity among Christians was simply too dangerous for most jurisdictions.
Karp, Alan (1985). "John Calvin and the Geneva Academy: Roots of the Board of Trustees". History of Higher Education Annual. 5. Transaction Publishers. p. 12. ISBN 9781412825283. Retrieved 17 November 2019.
The conception of the church as the spiritual arm of the temporal authority was in accord with the Reformation view of the proper relationship between church and state.
During the Middle Ages society was considered a universal whole governed by God through the papal vice-regency. [...] The Reformation brought the medieval unity to an end and replaced it with the Augsburg formula of religious compromise, cuius regio eius religio.
- ^ Andrea Del Col: L'Inquisizione in Italia. Milano: Oscar Mondadori, 2010, pp. 779-780. ISBN 978-88-04-53433-4.
الهامش[تحرير | عدل المصدر]
- Holborn, Hajo, A History of Modern Germany, The Reformation. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1959 . ISBN 978-0-691-00795-3
- Jedin, Hubert, Konciliengeschichte, Freiburg, Herder, 1980, ISBN 978-0-8164-0449-0.
- Ozment, Steven, The Age of Reform 1250–1550, An Intellectual and Religious History of Late Medieval and Reformation Europe, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1986, ISBN 978-0-300-02760-0
للاستزادة[تحرير | عدل المصدر]
- Brady, Thomas, et al. (1995). Handbook of European History, 1400–1600, v. 2. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-09761-2
- Brodek, Theodor V (1971). "Socio-Political Realities of the Holy Roman Empire". Journal of Interdisciplinary History 1 (3): 395–405. 1971.
- Sutherland, N.M. . "Origins of the Thirty Years War and the Structure of European Politics". The English Historical Review 107 (424): 587–625. 1992.