أشكالي ومصريو البلقان

(تم التحويل من Ashkali and Egyptians)
أشكالي ومصريو البلقان
Ashkali, and Balkan Egyptians
المناطق ذات التجمعات المعتبرة
 كوسوڤو26,960[1][أ]
 شمال مقدونيا3,713[2][ب]
 ألبانيا3,368[3][ب]
 صربيا2,831[4][5][ت]
 الجبل الأسود2,054[6][ب]
 كرواتيا172[7]
اللغات
الألبانية
الدين
أغلبية من المسلمين (أساساً Sunni and Bektashi)
Orthodox Christian minority[8]

أشكالي (Ashkali وأيضاً Aškalije ، Haškalije ، Hashkali) و مصريو البلقان (Jevgs ، Egjiptjant أو Gjupci؛ بالإنگليزية: Balkan Egyptians) هم أقليات عرقية ثقافية (تجمعات مُعترف بها) تتكلم اللغة الألبانية وتقطن أساساً كوسوڤو. They are sometimes considered to be Albanized Romani, but they do not self-identify as such. Prior to the Kosovo War of 1999, Ashkali registered themselves as Albanians.[9]

During the Kosovo War, they were displaced as refugees in Albania, Serbia and شمال مقدونيا and whole Western Europe such as Germany and France. The "Ashkali" identity was created in 1999, as they tried to show their pro-Albanian stance and distinguish themselves from the Roma (Gypsies).[10]

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التاريخ

The "Ashkali" have been classed as a "new ethnic identity in the Balkans", formed in the 1990s.[11]

It was earlier applied to stationary Roma who settled in Albanian areas during Ottoman Empire times. The Ashkalija speak Albanian as their first language. Ashkalija often worked as blacksmiths, or manual laborers on Ottoman estates. Ashkalija are found mainly in eastern and central Kosovo. The Ashkali people claim that they have originated in Persia, now Iran, in 4th century BC (Ashkal, Gilan, Iran); however, there are no indicators for this hypothesis and it not scientifically proven. There are other theories of the Ashkali coming from Turkey in a village called Aşkale (Erzurum district of Turkey), or possibly have come from ages ago in the city of Ashkalon (Israel). Still, some believe they are travelers from Northern India (Romani) who have used the Albanian language as their mother-tongue.

A 14th-century reference to a placename (Агѹповы клѣти, Agupovy klěti) in the Rila Charter of Ivan Alexander of Bulgaria is thought to be related to the Balkan Egyptians according to some authors, such as Konstantin Josef Jireček.[12][13]

In 1990, an "Egyptian association" was formed in Ohrid, Macedonia. During the Kosovo War, Albanized Roma were displaced as refugees in Albania and the Republic of Macedonia. Many Ashkali fought in the Kosovo Liberation Army. Albanized Roma formed the ethnic group Ashkali after the end of the war in 1999, to show their pro-Albanian stance and distinguish themselves from the Roma, who had been mistakenly viewed as pro-Serbian during the war. Many Albanized Roma were also sent to refugee camps with other Roma, with whom they did not share the same language and customs.[9] As the majority of Kosovo (or Albanized) Roma, many Ashkali refugees settled in Serbia and Montenegro. The first Ashkali party (Democratic Party of the Ashkali Albanians of Kosovo) was formed in 2000 under Sabit Rrahmani, who supported Kosovo independence in the name of all Ashkali.[9]

In Kosovo, the Ashkali were aligned with Albanians before, during and after the Kosovo War.[9] However, Ashkali, along with Romani Gypsies from Kosovo, have reportedly been expelled from the area.[14]


الديمغرافيا

Most Ashkali and Egyptians live in Kosovo and North Macedonia, but the peoples also reside in Albania, Serbia and Montenegro. In the Macedonian census of 2002, 3,713 people self-identified as "Egyptian". In the Serbian census of 2002 (excluding Kosovo), 814 people self-identified as "Egyptian". In the Montenegrin census, 225 people self-identified as "Egyptian".

Ashkali are predominant in the central and eastern regions of Kosovo: Ferizaj, Kosovo Polje and Lipljan. Egyptians live in western Kosovo: in Gjakova, Istok, Peja and Deçan. The Ashkali/Egyptian community of Kosovo had 98% unemployment in 2009.[15]

الثقافة

تقرير من منظمة العفو الدولية يشرح التمييز العرقي وسوء أحوال الأشكالي في كوسوڤو. فبراير 2017.[16]
"علم أشكالي" (Amëza e Ashkalive) صممه في 1999 عابدين طوپليتسا.[18]


Roma, Ashkali, and Egyptians claim ethnic differences among them. Marriages between Egyptians and Albanians are very rare but still more frequent than marriages between Romani and Albanians, while marriages between Egyptians with Roma are extremely rare. Roma and Ashkalija do not classify one another as Gadje.[15] The Ashkali and Roma claim the Egyptians as their own; whereas the Ashkali and Egyptians dispute over each other's background.[9] No television or radio channels are dedicated to Askhali or Egyptian minority audiences.[15]

الاضطهاد، حسب منظمة العفو الدولية 2017

PRISTINA (Kosovo), February 22 (SeeNews) - The living situation of Kosovo's Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian communities did not improve last year and they continued to live in overcrowded informal settlements without adequate access to water and other basic services, Amnesty International said.[16]

These communities are suffering institutional dicrimination, in particular in accessing sustainable solutions for housing and employment, as internally displaced persons, the non-governmental organisation said in the 2016/2017 edition of its annual report The State of the World’s Human Rights.

The Human Rights Advisory Panel (HRAP) brought to light past several breaches of the human rights of Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian communities under the mandate of the United Nations Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), Amnesty International said in its report which covers 159 countries and territories. I

In February 2016 HRAP found out that UNMIK subjected several families from these communities to inhuman and degrading treatment, failed to respect their rights to respect for private and family life and to health and discriminated against them on the grounds of their ethnic background.

In its final report from June 2016, HRAP severely condemned UNMIK for its overall failure to provide accountability for human rights violations, Amnesty International noted.

UNMIK was established in order to provide an interim administration for Kosovo. Its mandate started in June 1999, immediately after the Kosovo war (March 1998 - June 1999). Following the declaration of independence by the Kosovo authorities on 17 February 2008 and the entry into force of the new constitution, the tasks of UNMIK have significantly been modified with its configuration changed and the number of staff reduced.


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انظر أيضاً

المراجع

  1. ^ 15,436 Ashkali and 11,524 Balkan Egyptians
  2. ^ أ ب ت Identified as Balkan Egyptians
  3. ^ 1,834 Balkan Egyptians and 997 Ashkali at the 2011 census
  1. ^ "Population - by gender ethnicity at settlement level" (PDF). p. 11. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  2. ^ Statistički godišnik na Republika Makedonija (in المقدونية). 2007. p. 55. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  3. ^ "1.1.13 Popullsia banuese sipas përkatësisë etnike dhe kulturore sipas Përkatësia etnike dhe kulturore, Variabla dhe Viti" (xls). INSTAT - Instituti i Statistikave (in الألبانية). Retrieved 30 July 2019.
  4. ^ "Попис становништва, домаћинстава и станова 2011. у Републици Србији" (PDF) (in الصربية). Statistics of Serbia. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  5. ^ "THIRD REPORT SUBMITTED BY SERBIA PURSUANT TO ARTICLE 25, PARAGRAPH 2 OF THE FRAMEWORK CONVENTION FOR THE PROTECTION OF NATIONAL MINORITIES". Council of Europe. p. 14-15. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  6. ^ "STATISTIČKI GODIŠNJAK 2011" (PDF). Statistics of Montenegro: 46. Retrieved 31 July 2019. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  7. ^ "1. POPULATION BY ETHNICITY – DETAILED CLASSIFICATION, 2011 CENSUS". Croatia Bureau of Statistics. 31 January 2012. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  8. ^ Nielsen, Jørgen; Akgönül, Samim; Alibašić, Ahmet; Racius, Egdunas, eds. (2013). Yearbook of Muslims in Europe, Volume 5. BRILL. p. 370. ISBN 9789004255869.
  9. ^ أ ب ت ث ج Valeriu Nicolae; Hannah Slavik (2007). Roma Diplomacy. IDEA. ISBN 978-1-932716-33-7.
  10. ^ Elsie, Robert (15 November 2010). "Historical Dictionary of Kosovo". Scarecrow Press – via Google Books.
  11. ^ ""NEW ETHNIC IDENTITIES IN THE BALKANS: THE CASE OF THE EGYPTIANS"" (PDF). Facta.junis.ni.ac.rs. Retrieved 15 October 2017.
  12. ^ Даскалова, Ангелина; Мария Райкова (2005). Грамоти на българските царе (in Bulgarian). София: Академично издателство "Марин Дринов". p. 57.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  13. ^ Trubeta, Sevasti (March 2005). "Balkan Egyptians and Gypsy/Roma Discourse" (PDF). Nationalities Papers. 33 (1): 71–95. doi:10.1080/00905990500053788.
  14. ^ Memorandum of the Society for Threatened People on the Issue of Lead Poisoning of Roma in IDP Camps in Kosovo, GFBV.
  15. ^ أ ب ت "Notes made from the Ashkali and Egyptian communities for the shadow report on the Implementation of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities in Kosovo" (PDF). Minelres.lv. Retrieved 15 October 2017.
  16. ^ أ ب Marina Mikhaylova (2017-02-26). "Roma, Ashkali, Egyptians in Kosovo continue to face bad living conditions - Amnesty Intl". seenews.com.
  17. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-01-09. Retrieved 2015-12-26.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  18. ^ Abedin Toplica: "Flamuri Kombëtar i Ashkalive / Zastava Aškalija / The National Flag", Ashkali Horizonti, nr. 2, 2003 www.ashkali.org.yu "The flag is red with a black rising eagle in front of a green disk. اللونان الأحمر والأسود يشبهان العلم الألباني. القرص الأخضر يمثل الإسلام"

الهامش

a.   ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between Serbia and the local Albanian majority. The Assembly of Kosovo declared its independence on 17 February 2008, a move that is recognised and the Republic of China (Taiwan), but not by Serbia, which claims it as part of its sovereign territory.

مراجع مذكورة

وصلات خارجية

قالب:Ethnic groups in Kosovo قالب:Ethnic groups of Montenegro