2016 في العلوم

هذه صفحة مكتوبة بالعربية البسيطة، انظر الصفحة الأصلية
            قائمة الأعوام في العلوم           
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الفن . الآثار . العمارة . الأدب . الموسيقى . الفلسفة . العلوم +...

عدد من الأحداث العلمية الهامة وقعت، أو يُتوقع حدوثها، في 2016. وقد أعلنت الأمم المتحدة 2016 السنة الدولية للبقوليات.[1]

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الأحداث[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

يناير[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

7 January: IDCS 1426, the most distant massive cluster of galaxies ever identified.[4]
20 January: 2015 – Warmest Global Year on Record (since 1880) – Colors indicate temperature anomalies (NASA/NOAA; 20 January 2016).[17]
  • 18 يناير
    • Man-made heat entering the oceans has doubled since 1997, according to a study in the journal Nature Climate Change.[18][19]
    • Light-activated nanoparticles able to kill over 90% of antibiotic-resistant bacteria are demonstrated at the University of Colorado Boulder.[20]
    • Researchers demonstrate a new class of small, thin electronic sensors that monitor temperature and pressure within the skull – crucial health parameters after a brain injury or surgery – then melt away when no longer needed. This eliminates the need for additional surgery to remove the monitors and reduces the risk of infection and hemorrhage.[21]
  • 19 يناير
    • A successful head transplant on a monkey by scientists in China is reported.[22]
    • DARPA announces a new program, Neural Engineering System Design (NESD), which aims to greatly improve the bandwidth and quality of neural interfaces, connecting up to a million neurons at a time.[23]
  • 20 يناير
  • 23 يناير – لوكهيد مارتن announces the "Segmented Planar Imaging Detector for Electro-optical Reconnaissance" (SPIDER), a new way of dramatically shrinking the size of telescopes, by using hundreds to thousands of tiny lenses. The diameter does not change, but the SPIDER system is thinner and does not need multiple mirrors.[28]
28 January: Studies suggest that a time reversal asymmetry may make the universe move forward in time.[29]
  • 25 يناير
  • 27 يناير – Google announces a breakthrough in artificial intelligence with a program able to beat the European champion of the board game Go.[34][35][36]
  • 28 يناير
    • Research into the nature of time by Griffith University's Centre for Quantum Dynamics shows how an asymmetry for time reversal might be responsible for making the universe move forward in time.[29]
    • Observations by the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Maryland, suggest that Smith's Cloud did not originate from intergalactic space, but was actually launched out of our own galaxy around 70 million years ago.[37]
  • 29 يناير
    • Researchers demonstrate that graphene can be successfully interfaced with neurons, while maintaining the integrity of these vital nerve cells. It is believed this could lead to much improved brain implants for restoring sensory functions.[38]
    • Proton beam therapy for cancer is as effective as other treatments and causes fewer side effects in children than conventional radiotherapy, according to research published by The Lancet.[39][40]
    • Research by UCLA provides further evidence that the Moon was formed by a violent, head-on collision between the early Earth and a “planetary embryo” called Theia, roughly 100 million years after the Earth formed.[41]


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فبراير[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

  • 1 فبراير – Scientists in the United Kingdom are given the go-ahead by regulators to genetically modify human embryos by using CRISPR-Cas9 and related techniques.[42][43]
  • 2 فبراير – The smallest ever lattice structure is created by the Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT), with glassy carbon struts and braces less than 200 nm in diameter.[44]
  • 3 فبراير – Following a helium plasma test in December 2015, the first hydrogen test is successfully conducted at the Wendelstein 7-X fusion device in Germany.[45][46]
11 February: Collision and merger of two black holes, resulting in the first direct observation of gravitational waves.[47][48][49][50]
24 February: Pancreatic cancer is found to have four sub-types.[63]
  • 23 فبراير – Boston Dynamics reveals the latest version of its "Atlas" humanoid robot, featuring highly dynamic movements and reactions in both indoor and outdoor environments.[64]
  • 24 فبراير – Pancreatic cancer is found to have four separate sub-types, each with a different cause and requiring a different treatment.[63][65]
  • 26 فبراير – A solar cell so thin, flexible, and lightweight that it can be draped on a soap bubble is demonstrated by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.[66]

مارس[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

  • 2 مارس – Climate change could kill more than 500,000 people a year globally by 2050 by making their diets less healthy, according to research published in the Lancet.[67][68]
  • 3 مارس
    • The most remote galaxy ever detected – GN-z11 – is confirmed by the Hubble Space Telescope at a distance of 13.4 billion light years.[69]
    • The global average temperature briefly spikes 2 degrees C above the pre-industrial average, considered by most countries to be the "dangerous" limit for climate change.[70][71]
  • 4 مارس – علماء جامعة كمبردج demonstrate that 'naïve' pluripotent stem cells can be derived from a human embryo. One of the most flexible types of stem cell, these can develop into all human tissue other than the placenta.[72]
  • 7 مارس – German researchers identify a specific gene mutation in humans that provides a 50 percent lower risk of suffering a heart attack.[73]
  • 9 مارس
14 March: ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter is launched.[77]


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أبريل[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

8 April: First stage of Falcon 9 rocket landed on floating autonomous droneship.[98]
    • A new quantum state of matter is discovered in a graphene-like magnetic material RuCl3 hosting curious magnetic quasiparticles called Majorana fermions which are their own antiparticles. It is a step forward in materials which will allow quantum computation.[99][100]
  • 7 أبريل
    • A new analysis of clouds and their role in global warming reveals they contain more liquid water (as opposed to ice) than previously thought. This makes them less reflective and therefore results in more heat reaching the Earth's surface, meaning that future temperature increases may have been underestimated.[101]
    • A new method to produce transistors is presented, based on nanocrystal 'inks'. This allows them to be produced on flexible surfaces, possibly with 3D printers.[102]
  • 8 أبريل – SpaceX successfully lands the first stage of a Falcon 9 rocket (SpaceX CRS-8) on a floating drone ship for the first time.[98][103]
  • 9 أبريل – By adding a one-atom thick layer of graphene to solar panels, Chinese scientists report that electricity can be generated from raindrops.[104]
  • 11 أبريل – Scientists announce an updated biological "tree of life" summarizing the evolution of all known life forms, and find that the branches of the new overview, based on the latest genetic findings, are mainly composed of bacteria.[105][106][107]
  • 12 أبريل – Scientists announce Breakthrough Starshot, a Breakthrough Initiatives program, to develop a proof-of-concept fleet of small centimeter-sized light sail spacecraft, named StarChip,[108] capable of making the journey to Alpha Centauri, the nearest extrasolar star system, at speeds of 20%[109][110] and 15%[111] of the speed of light, taking between 20 and 30 years to reach the star system, respectively, and about 4 years to notify Earth of a successful arrival.
  • 13 أبريل
    • A quadriplegic man, Ian Burkhart from Ohio, is able to perform complex functional movements with his fingers after a chip was implanted in his brain.[112][113]
    • Astronomers report the discovery of Crater 2, the fourth largest satellite galaxy of the Milky Way, at a distance of 380,000 light years.[114][115]
    • An international team reports synthesising ultra-long carbyne inside double-walled nanotubes. This exotic form of carbon is even stronger than graphene.[116][117]
  • 14 أبريل – The discovery of hormone asprosin is reported in Cell.[118]
22 أبريل: Map showing an extensive reef system near the Amazon River.[119]
  • 21 أبريل – BioViva USA reports the first successful use of gene therapy to extend the length of telomeres in a human patient.[120]
  • 22 أبريل
  • 26 أبريل – Astronomers using the Hubble Space Telescope report the discovery of a moon orbiting the remote dwarf planet Makemake.[122][123]
  • 28 أبريل
    • Scientists identify a pair of molecular signals controlling skin and hair colour, which could be targeted by new drugs to treat skin pigment disorders like vitiligo.[124]
    • A new paper in Astrobiology suggests there could be a way to simplify the Drake equation, based on observations of exoplanets discovered in the last two decades.[125][126]
  • 29 أبريل – A team at Stanford University reveals "OceanOne", a humanoid robot capable of moving around the seabed using thrusters.[127]

مايو[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

  • 2 مايو
    • Researchers of the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry and the Cyprus Institute in Nicosia calculate that in future decades, the Middle East and North Africa could become so hot that human habitability is compromised.[128]
    • Researchers at the University of Illinois and University of Puerto Rico announce they have sequenced the mitochondrial genome for the Hispaniolan solenodon, a venomous mammal found only on Hispaniola. Their findings confirm that the species diverged from all other living mammals about 78 million years ago, before dinosaurs went extinct.[129]
    • Astronomers discover three potentially Earth-like planets in the habitable zone of an ultracool brown dwarf star (TRAPPIST-1) just 40 light years away from Earth.[130]
    • A study in PNAS concludes that Earth may be home to 1 trillion species, with 99.999 percent remaining undiscovered.[131]
13 May: Synthesizing a human genome considered,[132] and later, 2 June, formally announced.[133][134]
  • 4 مايو – The most detailed ever study of leopard populations reveals that the animals have lost 75% of their historical habitat range since 1750.[135]
  • 9 مايو
  • 10 مايو
  • 13 مايو – Scientists consider extending the Human Genome Project to include creating a synthetic human genome.[132]
  • 16 مايو – NASA confirms that April 2016 was the hottest April ever recorded, beating the previous record set in 2010 by 0.24 °C, the largest margin ever.[141]
  • 17 May
    • Scientists at IBM Research announce a storage memory breakthrough by reliably storing three bits of data per cell using a new memory technology known as phase-change memory (PCM). The results could provide fast and easy storage to capture the exponential growth of data in the future.[142]
    • A detailed report by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine finds no risk to human health from genetic modifications of food.[143][144]
    • Researchers at the University of Virginia Health System find that the Oct4 gene, once thought to be inactive in adults, actually plays a vital role in preventing heart attacks and strokes. The gene could delay at least some of the effects of aging.[145]
  • 18 مايو
    • At the I/O developer conference, Google reveals it has been working on a new chip, known as the Tensor Processing Unit (TPU), which delivers "an order of magnitude higher performance per watt than all commercially available GPUs and FPGA."[146]
    • A study of Totten Glacier, East Antarctica's largest outlet of ice, reveals that its melting could pass a critical threshold within the next century, entering a period of irreversible retreat and ultimately adding nearly three metres to global sea levels.[147][148]
  • 19 مايو – Scientists in the US report evidence that tsunamis up to 120m high swept across Mars in the ancient past.[149][150]
23 May: Significant asteroid data from the WISE and NEOWISE missions questioned.[151]
  • 23 مايو
  • 24 مايو – A survey of 216,000 adolescents from all 50 US states finds the number of teens with marijuana-related problems is declining and marijuana use is falling, despite the fact that more US states are legalising or decriminalising the drug.[155]
  • 25 مايو – Researchers discover new evidence that amyloid-beta protein acts as a natural antibiotic in the brain: Alzheimer's-associated amyloid plaques may be a normal part of the immune system, and removing amyloid could actually be harmful.[156][157]
  • 26 مايو – Evidence of a recent, extreme ice age on Mars is published in the journal Science. Just 370,000 years ago, the planet would have appeared more white than red, the authors say.[158]
  • 27 مايو – Strimvelis, an ex-vivo stem cell gene therapy for adenosine deaminase deficiency, and the first gene therapy for children, is granted regulatory approval by the European Commission.[159]

يونيو[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

14 June: Bramble Cay melomys, reported to be the first recorded mammal to become extinct due to anthropogenic climate change.[165]
15 June: Second gravitational wave (GW151226) detected.[175]

يوليو[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

  • 1 يوليو – A new family of tetraquark particles – named X(4140), X(4274), X(4500), and X(4700) – is announced by researchers at the Large Hadron Collider.[184]
  • 4 يوليو – NASA scientists announce the arrival of the Juno spacecraft at the planet Jupiter.[185][186]
  • 11 يوليو – Astronomers announce the discovery of 2015 RR245, a dwarf planet candidate in the Kuiper Belt with a highly elliptical 700-year orbit.[187][188]
  • 13 يوليو – U.S. and Indian scientists report that graphene-infused packaging is a million times better at blocking moisture than typical plastic.[189]
25 July: 355 genes of LUCA found for all organisms living on Earth.[190]
  • 20 يوليو
    • Using the Hubble telescope, scientists perform the first spectroscopy of the atmospheres of Earth-sized exoplanets (orbiting TRAPPIST-1).[191][192]
    • Scientists at Rice University announce a new titanium-gold alloy that is four times harder than most steels.[193]
  • 21 يوليو – The hottest ever temperature in the Eastern Hemisphere is reported, with Mitribah, Kuwait reaching 54 °C (129.2 °F).[194] This is second only to Death Valley in California, which saw 56.7 °C (134.1 °F) in 1913.
  • 25 يوليو
  • 26 يوليو – Solar Impulse 2 becomes the first solar-powered aircraft to circumnavigate the Earth.[196]
  • 27 يوليو
    • Neonicotinoids, the world’s most widely used insecticide, are found to reduce bee sperm counts by almost 40%, as well as cutting the lifespan of bee drones by a third.[197]
    • Researchers in Germany discover that bacteria from the human nose تنتج مضاد حيوي مبتكر which is effective against multiresistant pathogens.[198][199]
    • Current levels of atmospheric greenhouse gases already commit the planet to air temperatures over many land regions being eventually warmed by greater than 1.5 degrees Celsius, according to new research.[200][201]
  • 28 يوليو – A new "vortex" laser that travels in a corkscrew pattern is shown to carry 10 times or more the information of conventional lasers, potentially offering a way to extend Moore's Law.[202]
  • 29 يوليو – The seafloor in the Clarion-Clipperton Zone – an area in the Pacific Ocean being targeted for deep-sea mining – is found to contain an abundance and diversity of life, with more than half of the species collected being new to science.[203]

أغسطس[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

  • 1 أغسطس – Using the DNA from over 450,000 customers of gene-testing company 23andMe, researchers identify for the first time 15 regions of the genome associated with depression.[204][205]
  • 3 أغسطس – Researchers pinpoint which of the more than 4,000 exoplanet candidates discovered by NASA's Kepler mission are most likely to be similar to Earth. Their research outlines 216 Kepler planets located within the 'habitable zone', of which 20 are the best candidates to be habitable rocky planets like Earth.[206][207]
  • 4 August – A team at the University of Oxford achieves a quantum logic gate with record-breaking 99.9% precision, reaching the benchmark required to build a quantum computer.[208]
  • 5 أغسطس
11 August: Greenland shark found to be the longest-lived vertebrate on Earth, capable of living nearly 400 years.[215]
  • 6 August – Engineers at the University of California, Berkeley, create the first dust-sized wireless sensors that may be implanted within the body.[216]
  • 8 August – New research by Stanford University suggests that phase-change memory can be engineered to be 1,000 times faster, while using less energy and requiring less space.[217]
  • 11 أغسطس
    • Venus may have been habitable in the ancient past, with a shallow liquid-water ocean and much lower temperatures than today, according to NASA climate models.[218]
    • The Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus) is found to be the longest-lived vertebrate, able to reach a lifespan of nearly 400 years.[215]
  • 12 August – Researchers at University College London devise a software algorithm able to scan and replicate almost anyone's handwriting.[219][220]
  • 15 أغسطس
    • NASA reports that July 2016 was the hottest single month in recorded history (going back to 1880), at 1.51 degrees Fahrenheit (0.84 degrees Celsius) above the 1950-1980 global average.[221]
    • NASA confirms that fracking is responsible for a huge methane hot spot in the United States.[222][223]
    • A possible new subatomic particle could provide evidence of a fifth fundamental force of nature, according to research published in Physical Review Letters by scientists at the University of California, Irvine.[224]
    • Replacing tropical lowland forests with palm oil plantations can damage 11 out of 14 functions of a healthy ecosystem, some of which will be irreparable, concludes a study by the Helmholtz Centre For Environmental Research.[225]
  • 16 August – MIT announces a breakthrough which can double lithium-ion battery capacity.[226]
  • 22 August – Researchers at Princeton demonstrate an open source 25-core chip that can easily be scaled to create a 200,000-core computer.[227][228]
24 August: Artist's impression of Proxima b, an Earth-sized exoplanet detected in the habitable zone of Proxima Centauri, the closest star to the Sun - possible destination of the StarChip spacecraft.[229]

سبتمبر[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

14 سبتمبر: Reddish north pole of Charon, moon of Pluto, made of tholins formed from atmospheric gases released from Pluto.[247]
  • 7 سبتمبر – One-tenth of the world's wilderness is reported to have disappeared in the last 20 years – an area twice the size of Alaska – with the Amazon and Central Africa being the hardest hit regions.[248][249][250]
  • 8 سبتمبر
    • DNA testing of skeletal remains in London confirms that Yersinia pestis was the bacteria responsible for the Great Plague of 1665.[251]
    • NASA launches the seven-year OSIRIS-REx mission, which aims to reach the 500m-wide asteroid Bennu and bring a sample back to Earth.[252][253][254][255]
    • A genetic analysis shows that the genus giraffe, previously thought to contain one extant species, actually consists of four.[256]
  • 10 September – The second largest meteorite ever found is exhumed near Gancedo, Argentina. It weighs 30 tonnes and fell to Earth around 2000 BC.[257]
  • 13 September – The European Space Agency releases the first batch of data from the Gaia space telescope, which has recorded the position and brightness of a billion stars in the Milky Way galaxy.[258][259]
  • 14 September – Astronomers announce that the reddish-brown cap of the north pole of Charon, the largest of five moons that orbit the dwarf planet Pluto, is composed of tholins, organic macromolecules produced from methane, nitrogen and related gases released from the atmosphere of Pluto and transferred over about 19,000 kم (12,000 ميل) distance to the orbiting moon.[247]
  • 16 September – The development of 1 terabit-per-second transmission rates over optical fiber is announced by Nokia Bell Labs, Deutsche Telekom T-Labs and the Technical University of Munich.[260]
  • 20 September
21 September: All non-African humans currently on Earth can be traced to a single group that exited Africa about 50,000 years ago.[264]
  • 21 September – Scientists report that, based on human DNA genetic studies, all non-African humans in the world today can be traced to a single population that exited Africa between 50,000 and 80,000 years ago.[264]
  • 22 سبتمبر
    • Meltwater ponds are reported in East Antarctica for the first time, after temperatures rose above 0 °C.[265]
    • Researchers at the University of Toronto create the first map that shows the global genetic interaction network of a cell. It begins to explain how thousands of genes coordinate with one another to orchestrate cellular life.[266]
  • 25 September – The Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Telescope (FAST) becomes operational in Guizhou Province, southwest China.[267]
  • 26 September – Mercury is found to be tectonically active.[268]
  • 27 سبتمبر
    • The world's first baby born through a controversial new "three parent" technique is reported.[269][270]
    • SpaceX founder and entrepreneur Elon Musk reveals his plan to send humans to Mars on a new spacecraft, with unmanned flights beginning as early as 2022.[271]
  • 29 September – A study led by the University of Cambridge finds that body-worn cameras led to a 93% drop in complaints made against police by the UK and US public.[272]
  • 30 September – The Rosetta spacecraft ends its mission by attempting a soft-landing inside a 130 م (425 قدم) wide pit, called Deir el-Medina, on comet 67P. The walls of the pit contain 0.91 م (3 قدم) wide so-called "goose bumps", considered to be building blocks of the comet.[273][274][275]

أكتوبر[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

5 October: Upper age limit of human longevity is reported as 115 years old.[276][277]

الأحداث المتوقعة والمزمعة[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

أكتوبر[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

غير معروفة التاريخ[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

الوفيات[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

انظر أيضاً[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

الهامش[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

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