كراسنويارسك كراي - Krasnoyarsk Krai

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Krasnoyarsk Krai
Красноярский край
علم Krasnoyarsk Krai
Flag
درع Krasnoyarsk Krai
Coat of arms
النشيد: [1]
Map of Russia - Krasnoyarsk Krai.svg
الإحداثيات: 59°53′N 91°40′E / 59.883°N 91.667°E / 59.883; 91.667Coordinates: 59°53′N 91°40′E / 59.883°N 91.667°E / 59.883; 91.667
البلدروسيا
المنطقة الاتحاديةSiberian[2]
المنطقة الاقتصاديةEast Siberian[3]
تأسستDecember 7, 1934[4]
Administrative centerKrasnoyarsk
الحكومة
 • الكيانLegislative Assembly[5]
 • Governor[5]Alexander Uss (acting)[6]
المساحة
 • Total2٬339٬700 كم² (903٬400 ميل²)
ترتيب المساحة2nd
Population
 (2010 Census)[8]
 • Total2٬828٬187
 • Estimate 
(March 2015)[9]
2٬858٬700
 • Rank13th
 • Density1٫2/km2 (3٫1/sq mi)
 • Urban
76٫3%
 • Rural
23٫7%
منطقة التوقيتUTC+ ([10])
ISO 3166 codeRU-KYA
لوحات السيارات24, 124
اللغات الرسميةالروسية[11]
الموقع الإلكترونيhttp://www.krskstate.ru

كراسنويارسك كراي (روسية: Красноя́рский край, النطق Krasnoyarsky kray; النطق الروسي: [krəsnɐˈjarskʲɪj ˈkraj]) هي إحدى الكيانات الفدرالية في روسيا. و تحوي المدن والقرى التالية: أتشينسك، أرتيوموفسك، بوغوتول، بورودينو، ديفنوغورسك، دودينكا، إيغاركا، إيلانسكي، كانسك، كودينسك، كراسنويارسك، لسوسيبيرسك، مينوسينسك، نازاروفو، نوريلسك، شاريبوفو، سوسنوفوبورسك، أويار، أوجور، يينيسيسك، زاوزيورني، زيلينوغورسك، كراسنويارسك كراي، جيليزنوغورسك، كراسنويارسك كراي،

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الجغرافيا[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

The krai lies in the middle of Siberia, and occupies nearly half of the Siberian Federal District, almost splitting it in half, stretching 3,000 km from the Sayan Mountains in the south along the Yenisei River to the Taymyr Peninsula in the north. It borders (counting clockwise from the sea) the Sakha Republic, Irkutsk, the Tuva Republic, the Republic of Khakassia, and Kemerovo, Tomsk, and Tyumen Oblasts, and the Kara Sea and Laptev Sea of the Arctic Ocean in the north.


التاريخ[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

According to archaeologists, the first people reached Siberia circa 40,000 BCE.[12] The grave-mounds and monuments of the Scythian culture in Krasnoyarsk Krai belong to the 7th century BCE and are ones of the oldest in Eurasia. A prince's grave, the Kurgan Arshan, discovered in 2001, is also located in the krai.

Russian settlement of the area (mostly by Cossacks) began in the 17th century. After the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway the Russian colonization of the area strongly increased.

During both the Tsarist and the Bolsheviks' times the territory of Krasnoyarsk Krai was used as a place of exile of political enemies. The first leaders of the Soviet state, Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin were exiled to what is now the krai in 1897–1900 and 1903, respectively. In Stalin's era numerous Gulag camps were located in the region.

In 1822, the Yeniseysk Governorate was created with Krasnoyarsk as its administrative center that covered territory very similar to that of the current krai.

On June 30, 1908, in the basin of the Podkamennaya Tunguska River, there occurred a powerful explosion most likely to have been caused by the air burst of a large meteoroid or comet fragment at an altitude of 5–10 kilometers (3–6 miles) above Earth's surface. The force of the explosion is estimated to be about 10–15 megatons. It flattened more than 2,000 square kilometers (500,000 acres) of pine forest and killed thousands of reindeer.

Krasnoyarsk Krai was created in 1934 after disaggregation of the West Siberian and East Siberian Krais and later included Taymyr and Evenk Autonomous Okrugs and Khakas Autonomous Oblast. In 1991, Khakassia separated from the krai and became a republic within the Russian Federation.

On January 1, 2007, following a referendum on the issue held on April 17, 2005, territories of Evenk and Taymyr Autonomous Okrugs were merged into the krai.

السياسة[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

The seat of the oblast administration in the Revolution Square, 2005

التقسيمات الادارية[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

Map Krasnoyarsk Krai.png

Krasnoyarsk Krai consists of forty-four districts and fourteen towns of district significance. Two of the districts (Evenkiysky and Taymyrsky; the former autonomous okrugs) have special status.

الديمغرافيا[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

Population (including former Taymyr and Evenk Autonomous Okrugs): 3٬023٬525 (تعداد 2002);[13] 3٬596٬260 (تعداد 1989).[14]

Ethnic groups: The population of the krai mostly consists of Russians, and some other peoples of the former Soviet Union. The indigenous Siberian peoples make up no more than 1% of the population.

The 2010 Census reported the following ethnic composition:[8]

  • Russians: 91.3%
  • Ukrainians: 1.4%
  • تتار: 1.3%
  • Germans: 0.8%
  • Azeri: 0.6%
  • Belarusians: 0.4%
  • Chuvash: 0.4%
  • others: 2.5%
  • 100,621 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[15]
  • Births (Jan-Aug 2009): 25,520 (13.3 per 1000) [16]
  • Deaths (Jan-Aug 2009): 25,183 (13.1 per 1000)

As of August 2009, Krasnoyarsk Krai recorded a natural growth of population for the first time in 16 years.[17]

Total fertility rate:[18][19]
2003 - 1,35 | 2004 - 1,35 | 2005 - 1,31 | 2006 - 1,33 | 2007 - 1,44 | 2008 - 1,55 | 2009 - 1,61 | 2010 - 1,64 | 2011 - 1,64 | 2012 - 1,75 | 2013 - 1,78 | 2014 - 1,81 | 2015 - 1,84 | 2016 - 1,82(e)

Vital statistics for 2012
  • Births: 41 098 (14.5 per 1000)
  • Deaths: 36 726 (12.9 per 1000) [20]
  • Total fertility rate: 1.75


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الديمغرافيا في 2007[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

District Pop[21] Births Deaths NG BR DR NGR
Krasnoyarsk Krai 2,890,350 34,206 38,470 -4,264 11.83 13.31 -0.15%
Taimirsky Dolgano-Nenetsky District 37,768 592 335 257 15.67 8.87 0.68%
Evenkiysky District 16,705 304 233 71 18.20 13.95 0.43%
Abansky District 24,997 346 419 -73 13.84 16.76 -0.29%
Achinsky District 15,918 226 253 -27 14.20 15.89 -0.17%
Balakhtinsky District 23,761 281 409 -128 11.83 17.21 -0.54%
Beryozovsky District 38,527 483 543 -60 12.54 14.09 -0.16%
Birilyussky District 11,431 159 228 -69 13.91 19.95 -0.60%
Bogotolsky District 11,371 151 233 -82 13.28 20.49 -0.72%
Boguchansky District 48,312 585 626 -41 12.11 12.96 -0.08%
Bolshemurtinsky District 19,292 207 398 -191 10.73 20.63 -0.99%
Bolsheuluysky District 8,540 112 157 -45 13.11 18.38 -0.53%
Dzerzhinsky District 15,025 180 298 -118 11.98 19.83 -0.79%
Novosyolovsky District 15,128 192 226 -34 12.69 14.94 -0.22%
Partizansky District 11,003 155 233 -78 14.09 21.18 -0.71%
Pirovsky District 8,251 97 125 -28 11.76 15.15 -0.34%
Rybinsky District 23,393 309 422 -113 13.21 18.04 -0.48%
Sayansky District 13,058 163 235 -72 12.48 18.00 -0.55%
Severo-Yeniseysky District 10,907 153 136 17 14.03 12.47 0.16%
Sukhobuzimsky District 23,050 287 362 -75 12.45 15.70 -0.33%
Taseyevsky District 13,962 161 234 -73 11.53 16.76 -0.52%
Turukhansky District 20,736 249 295 -46 12.01 14.23 -0.22%
Tyukhtetsky District 9,034 111 197 -86 12.29 21.81 -0.95%
Uzhursky District 33,952 541 586 -45 15.93 17.26 -0.13%
Uyarsky District 22,255 250 495 -245 11.23 22.24 -1.10%
Idrinsky District 14,037 157 252 -95 11.18 17.95 -0.68%
Ilansky District 26,436 352 453 -101 13.32 17.14 -0.38%
Irbeysky District 18,053 241 300 -59 13.35 16.62 -0.33%
Kazachinsky District 11,333 162 191 -29 14.29 16.85 -0.26%
Sharypovsky District 17,816 244 295 -51 13.70 16.56 -0.29%
Shushensky District 35,372 392 659 -267 11.08 18.63 -0.75%
Krasnoyarsk 905,000 10,585 10,936 -351 11.70 12.08 -0.04%
Achinsk 110,838 1,333 1,702 -369 12.03 15.36 -0.33%
Bogotol 21,997 273 407 -134 12.41 18.50 -0.61%
Borodino 18,759 197 247 -50 10.50 13.17 -0.27%
Divnogorsk 30,968 337 438 -101 10.88 14.14 -0.33%
Yeniseysk 19,086 265 278 -13 13.88 14.57 -0.07%
Zaozyorny 11,359 184 221 -37 16.20 19.46 -0.33%
Kansk 98,965 1,113 1,458 -345 11.25 14.73 -0.35%
Lesosibirsk 64,215 932 1,027 -95 14.51 15.99 -0.15%
Minusinsk 66,770 852 1,141 -289 12.76 17.09 -0.43%
Nazarovo 53,593 568 890 -322 10.60 16.61 -0.60%
Norilsk 206,359 2,402 1,150 1,252 11.64 5.57 0.61%
Sosnovoborsk 30,074 306 275 31 10.17 9.14 0.10%
Sharypovo 38,495 599 583 16 15.56 15.14 0.04%
Yemelyanovsky District 45,908 493 633 -140 10.74 13.79 -0.30%
Kansky District 26,696 361 425 -64 13.52 15.92 -0.24%
Karatuzsky District 16,992 215 307 -92 12.65 18.07 -0.54%
Kezhemsky District 24,406 277 300 -23 11.35 12.29 -0.09%
Kozulsky District 18,292 225 344 -119 12.30 18.81 -0.65%
Krasnoturansky District 16,098 201 247 -46 12.49 15.34 -0.29%
Kuraginsky District 51,402 669 851 -182 13.02 16.56 -0.35%
Mansky District 17,684 226 365 -139 12.78 20.64 -0.79%
Minusinsky District 26,457 339 409 -70 12.81 15.46 -0.26%
Motyginsky District 18,152 238 257 -19 13.11 14.16 -0.10%
Nazarovsky District 23,609 390 356 34 16.52 15.08 0.14%
Yeniseysky District 27,044 353 418 -65 13.05 15.46 -0.24%
Yermakovsky District 20,621 310 360 -50 15.03 17.46 -0.24%
Nizhneingashsky District 35,886 448 597 -149 12.48 16.64 -0.42%
Other 245,202 1,673 2,020 -347 6.82 8.24 -0.14%


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الدين[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

Religion in Krasnoyarsk Krai as of 2012 (Sreda Arena Atlas)[22][23]
Russian Orthodoxy
  
29.6%
Other Orthodox
  
2.4%
Other Christians
  
5.7%
Islam
  
1.6%
Rodnovery and other native faiths
  
0.8%
Spiritual but not religious
  
35.1%
Atheism and irreligion
  
15%
Other and undeclared
  
9.8%

As a survey conducted in 2012,[22] 29.6% of the population of Krasnoyarsk Krai adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 5% declares to be a nondenominational Christian (excluding Protestant churches), 2% is an Orthodox Christian believer without belonging to any church or is a member of other (non-Russian) Orthodox churches, 1.5% is Muslim, 1% follows the Slavic native faith (Rodnovery), and 10.9% did not give an answer to the survey. In addition, 35% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious" and 15% to be atheist.[22]

التعليم[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

Krasnoyarsk is the site of the Siberian Federal University, one of the four largest educational institutions of Russia.

الطبيعة والبيئة[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

Many important industrial cities of Krasnoyarsk Krai, such as Krasnoyarsk, Norilsk, Achinsk, Kansk, Zheleznogorsk, and Minusinsk, suffer from environmental pollution.[بحاجة لمصدر]

انظر أيضاً[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

المراجع[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

الهامش[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

  1. ^ According to Article 24 of the Charter of Krasnoyarsk Krai, the symbols of the krai include a flag and a coat of arms, but not an anthem.
  2. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District).
  3. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (غوستاندارت of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER).
  4. ^ Resolution of December 7, 1934
  5. ^ أ ب Charter of Krasnoyarsk Krai, Article 46
  6. ^ Official website of Krasnoyarsk krai. Viktor Alexandrovich Tolokonsky, Governor of Krasnoyarsk Krai (بالروسية)
  7. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in الروسية). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
  8. ^ أ ب خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة 2010Census
  9. ^ Krasnoyarsk Krai Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics Service. Социально-экономическое положение Красноярского края в январе–марте 2015 года (بالروسية)
  10. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in الروسية). 3 June 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  11. ^ الرسمية في جميع أرجاء روسيا الاتحادية حسب الفقرة 68.1 من دستور روسيا.
  12. ^ "Arctic Social Sciences - Arctic Studies Center". Mnh.si.edu. Retrieved 2012-09-27.
  13. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек[[Category:Articles containing non-English-language text]] (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2008-07-25. URL–wikilink conflict (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  14. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров.[[Category:Articles containing non-English-language text]] (All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers.)". Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Demoscope Weekly (website of the Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. 1989. Retrieved 2007-12-13. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help); URL–wikilink conflict (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  15. ^ "Перепись-2010: русских становится больше". Perepis-2010.ru. 2011-12-19. Retrieved 2012-09-27.
  16. ^ http://www.statis.krs.ru/digital/region5/2007/Показатели%20естественного%20движения%20населения.pdf
  17. ^ "Новости Красноярска и Красноярского края — ИА "Пресс-Лайн"". Press-line.ru. Retrieved 2012-09-27.
  18. ^ Население ::Красноярскстат. Krasstat.gks.ru. Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
  19. ^ http://www.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_main/rosstat/ru/statistics/publications/catalog/doc_1137674209312
  20. ^ Естественное движение населения в разрезе субъектов Российской Федерации. Gks.ru. Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
  21. ^ "Территориальный орган Федеральной службы государственной статистики по Красноярскому краю - Население". Statis.krs.ru. Retrieved 2012-09-27.
  22. ^ أ ب ت "Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia". Sreda, 2012.
  23. ^ 2012 Arena Atlas Religion Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 21/04/2017. Archived.

المصادر[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

قالب:Cite Soviet law

وصلات خارجية[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

الكلمات الدالة: