حوادث المحطة النووية فوكوشيما 1

(تم التحويل من كارثة فوكوشيما 2011)
Ahmad eglass 2006.jpg
د. أحمد مغربي
Nabil.JPG
د. نبيل عبد القادر

ساهم بشكل رئيسي في تحرير هذا المقال
انفجار الهيدروجين في الوحدة 1.
منظر لانفجار المفاعل
صورة بالقمر الصناعي للوحدة الثالثة قبل دقائق من الانفجار الثاني في 14 مارس، الساعة 11.04 حسب التوقيت المحلي لليابان.

حوادث المحطة النووية فوكوشيما 1، هي سلسلة مستمرة من الحوادث أدت إلى إنبعاث الإشعاعات من محطة الطاقة النووية فوكوشيما 1، جاءت بعد زلزال وتسونامي 11 مارس 2011. تتكون المحطة من 6 مفاعلات ماء مغلي منفصلة. أغلقت المفاعلات تلقائيا بعد الزلزال لكن موجات التسونامي غمرت المحطة، مما استدعى لعمل مولدات الطوارئ للتبريد والتحكم في المفاعلات. انبعثت اشعاعات أخرى من محطة فوكوشيما 2 على بعد 11.5 كيلو متر جنوبا وحاول العمال السيطرة على الأمر، لكن أعلن فيما بعد أنه تم إغلاق المحطة.[3]

ذكرت وكالة الهندسة النووية بأن الوحدات من 1 إلى 3 توقفت بشكل آلي بعد زلزال اليابان الكبير، بينما كانت الوحدات من 4 إلى 6 متوقفة بسبب أعمال الصيانة.[4] وقد تم تشغيل مولدات ديزل لتأمين طاقة كهربائية راجعة من أجل تبريد الوحدات 1 إلى 3 والتي كانت قد تضررت بسبب التسونامي.[5] وقد عملت هذه المولدات في البداية بشكل جيد لكنها توقفت بعد ساعة.[6]. ويستخدم التبريد في طرح الحرارة المتولدة في المفاعل، وبعد فشل المولدات وتوقف البطاريات عن العمل بعد 8 ساعات والتي تستخدم عادة للتحكم بالمفاعل وصمامته اثناء إنقطاع الكهرباء، أعلنت حالة الطوارئ النووي في اليابان.[7][8][9] وقد أرسلت القوات اليابانية البرية بطاريات إلى موقع الحدث .[10]

صدر أمر إخلاء أولي لنطاق 3 كم من محيط المفاعل وشمل ذلك على 5800 مواطن يعيشون ضمن هذا النطاق. كما نصح السكان الذين يعيشون ضمن نطاق 10 كم من المصنع أن يبقوا في منازلهم.[11] وفي وقت لاحق شمل أمر الإخلاء جميع السكان ضمن نطاق الـ 10 كم.[12][13][14]

وقد أعلنت شركة كهرباء طوكيو في منتصف ليل 11 مارس حسب التوقيت المحلي لطوكيو بأنه سوف يتم تنفيس الغازات في الوحدة رقم 1 مما سيؤدي إلى تحرير إشعاعات في الجو.[15] كما سجلت شركة طوكيو للكهرباء إرتفاع النشاط الإشعاعي في بناء توربين الوحدة 1.ref>[.[16] وفي الساعة الثانية حسب التوقيت المحلي لطوكيو وصل الضغط ضمن المفاعل إلى 6 بار وهي قيمة أعلى ب 2 بار من أعلى قيمة مسموح فيها في الشروط الطبيعية .[6] وفي الساعة 5:30 سجل الضغط ضمن الوحدة 1 ب 8.1 بار وهو أعلى بـ 2.1 مرة من الإستطاعة التصميمية [17] .[18] وفي الساعة 6:10 أعلن عن مشكلة تبريد في الوحدة 2.[19]

للحد من تصاعد الضغط المحتمل تم الافراج عن البخار الحواي على مواد مشعة من الدائرة الابتدائية والثانوية الحاوية له.[20] وفي الساعة 6:40 من 12 مارس صرح كبير أمناء مجلس الوزراء الياباني يوكيو إدانو أن كميات الإشعاعات التي حررت هي كميات صغيرة وأن اتجاه الرياح سيؤدي إلى توجيهها إلى البحر.[21] لكن كمية الإشعاعات المقاسة ضمن غرفة التحكم في المحطة كانت أكثر بـ 100 مرة من المسموح.[22] أما كمية الإشعاعات المقاسة قرب البوابة الرئيسية للمحطة فكانت أكثر بـ 8 مرات من الحد الطبيعي.[23][24] وأعلن في مؤتمر صحفي عند الساعة 7 ، بأن كمية الإشعاعات المقاسة من خلال سيارة مراقبة كانت أكبر من الحد الطبيعي.[14] كما تم الكشف عن السيزيوم بالقرب من المحطة.[25] مما يعني إحتمال تعرض قضبان الوقود إلى الهواء.[26]

قام رئيس الوزراء الياباني ناوتو كان بزيارة المحطة لفترة قصيرة في 12 مارس.[27]كما أرسل فريق إنقاذ تابع لمطافئ طوكيو إلى فوكوشيما وأجلي أكثر من 50000 مواطن من المنطقة .[28]

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خط زمني

  • 11 مارس 2011: أعلنت الحكومة اليابانية حالة الطوارئ نتيجة إنهيار أنظمة التبريد في أحد مفاعلات فوكوشيما 1 وأخلت الآلاف من المقيمين بالقرب من المفاعل. فيما بعد أعلنت مصادر رسمية ان احتمالية عطب بؤرة المفاعل، واتسعت رقعة الإخلاء إلى 20 كم، وتأثر 179.000-200.000 شخص،[29][30] ونصح المقمين في نطاق 10 كم بالتزام منازلهم. وظهر على 22 شخص من المقمين بالقرب من المفاعل علامات التعرض لتلوث إشعاعي، وظهرت على ثلاثة من العاملين به أعراض radiation sickness،[31] وأكدت شركة طوكيو للطاقة الكهربائية (TEPCO) إصابة عامل واحد فقط.[32] خروج نواتج الإنشطار من بؤرة المفاعل النووي المعطوبة، وبخاصة يود-131 المشع، حذى بالسلطات اليابانية إلى توزيع اليود الواقي للأشخاص المقيمين حول فوكوشيما 1 وفوكوشيما 2.[31]
    • 12 مارس: بينما كانت الأدلة تتزايد على حدوث انصهار جزئي لقضبان الوقود في الوحدة 1، دمر انفجار هيدروجيني الكساء العلوي للمبني الحاوي لوحدة المفاعل 1. وقد أصاب الانفجار أربعة عمال، ولكن حاوية المفاعل داخل المبنى ظلت سليمة.[33][34] The explosion is believed to be the result of a buildup of hydrogen within the building after it was vented along with steam to reduce pressure within the containment vessel.[35][36] Hydrogen is formed when overheated zircaloy reactor fuel rods oxidize with water.[37] Operators of the plant were authorised to commence using sea water for emergency cooling, which will permanently damage the reactor beyond further use.
    • 13 مارس: انصهار جزئي آخر بدا محتملاً في الوحدة 3. وحتى 13:00 JST, كلا المفاعلين 1 و 3 كانا يجري تهويتهما واعادة ملئهما بالماء وحمض البوريك لخفض درجات الحرارة ومنع المزيد من التفاعلات النووية.[38] Unit 2 was reported to have lower than normal water level but to be stable, although pressure inside the containment vessel was high.[38] أعلنت وكالة الطاقة الذرية اليابانية أنها تقدر الوضع في الوحدتين 1 و 3 عند المستوى 4 (حادث ذو عواقب محلية) على المقياس الدولي للأحداث النووية (INES).[39]
    • 14 مارس: انفجر مبنى المفاعل الثالث[40] injuring eleven people. There was no release of radioactive material beyond that already being vented but blast damage affected water supply to Unit 2.[41] The president of the French nuclear safety authority, Autorité de sûreté nucléaire (ASN), said that the accident should be rated as a 5 ( accident with wider consequences) or even a 6 (serious accident) on INES.[42]
    • 15 مارس: problems with the vents on Unit 2 apparently meant that pressure in its containment vessel had prevented adding water, to the extent that Unit 2 was in the most severe condition of the three reactors.[43] An explosion in the "pressure suppression room" caused some damage to Unit 2’s containment system.[43][44] A fire broke out at Unit 4 involving spent fuel rods from the reactor, which are normally kept in the water-filled spent fuel pool to prevent overheating. Radiation levels at the plant rose significantly but have since fallen back.[45] A radiation equivalent dose rate was observed at one location in the vicinity of Unit 3 of 400 millisievert per hour (400 mSv/h).[46][47][48]
    • 16 مارس : حوالي الساعة 14:30 في 16 مارس، أعلنت تبكو نفسها أن حوض مخزن قضبان الوقود، والذي يقع خارج المنطقة الحاوية[49]—يمكن أن يكون قد بدأ بالغليان مما يزيد احتمال تعرض القضبان لوضع حرج.[50] By midday, NHK TV was reporting white smoke rising from the Fukushima I plant, which officials suggested was likely coming from Reactor 3. Shortly afterwards, reports surfaced that all but a small group[51] of remaining workers at the plant had been placed on standby because of the dangerously rising levels of radioactivity up to 1000 mSv/h.[52][53] Later reports stated that TEPCO had temporarily suspended operations at the facility due to radiation spikes and had pulled all their employees out.[54] A TEPCO press release stated that workers had been withdrawn at 06:00 JST because of abnormal noises coming from one of the reactor pressure suppression chambers.[55] Late in the evening, Reuters reported that water was being poured into reactors 5 and 6.[56]
    • 17 مارس: في الصباح ألقت مروحيات الدفاع المدني أربع حاويات من المياه على أحواض الوقود في المفاعل 3 و4.[57] بعد الظهر أعلن أن الوحدة 4 عن إنغمار قضبان الوقود بالمياه ولا يوجد قضيب واحد غير مغمور.[58] وبدأ العمل على إنشاء مصادر طاقة كهربائية خارجية لجميع وحدات فوكوشيما الستة.[59] من الساعة 7 مساءا، بدأت عربات الشرطة والمطافئ في رش المياه إلى مفاعل الوحدة 3، ولا زالت النتيجة غير معلومة.[60]


    محطة الطاقة النووية فوكوشيما 1

    Cutaway drawing of a typical BWR Mark I containment, as used in units 1 to 5. DW = drywell, WW = wetwell, SF = spent fuel

    محطة الطاقة النووية فوكوشيما 1، وكثيراً ما يشار إليها بإسم فوكوشيما داي-إيتشي، هي محطة طاقة نووية تقع في بلدة اوكوما في مقاطعة فوتابا في محافظة فوكوشيما، اليابان. وحداتها الست المنفصلة التي تقع في موقع بقدرة مجمعة 4.7 گيگاواط، فإن فوكوشيما-1 هي واحدة من أكبر 25 محطة طاقة نووية في العالم. فوكوشيما-1 هو أول محطة نووية تبنيها وتشغلها بالكامل شركة طوكيو للطاقة الكهربائية (تپكو TEPCO).

    الزلزال والتسونامي

    Diagrammatic representation of the cooling systems of a BWR

    حدث زلزال بقوة 9.0 MW حسب مقياس العزم الزلزال في 11 مارس 2011، في الساعة 14:46 توقيت اليابان القياسي (JST) على الساحل الشمالي الشرقي لليابان.

    في اليوم نفسه، استمرت الوحدات 1، 2، و3 في العمل، لكن الوحدات 4، 5، و6 أغلقت تلقائيا للتفتيش الدوري.[61] When the earthquake was detected, units 1, 2 and 3 underwent an automatic shutdown (called scram).[62]

    بعد إغلاق المفاعلات، توقفت مولدات الكهرباء. في الحالات الطبيعية، تسخدم مولدات الطاقة الخارجية في عمليات ادارة وتبريد المفاعلات،[بحاجة لمصدر] لكن الزلزال والتسونامي تسببا في إلحاق أضرار جسيمة بشبكة الكهرباء. بدأت مولدات الطوارئ بالديزل في العمل بشكل صحيح لكنها توقفت فجأة في الساعة 15:41، فتوقف التيار المتردد المشغل للمفاعلات. بعد انهيار الجدار الذي يحمي المفاعلات من البحر، تدفقت المياه بغزارة إلى داخل المبنى المنخفض الذي تقع فيه المولدات.[63][6] وحسب المادة 10 من القانون اليابان تم إعلان حالة الطوارئ من الدرجة الأولى.[62]

    مفاعل الوحدة 1

    مشكلات التبريد في الوحدة 1

    صورة جوية لمنطقة المحطة قبل الحوادث. الوحدة 1 هي في أقصى يمين تجمع المفاعلات الأربعة في منتصف اليسار. الوحدة 3 هي الثانية من اليسار. حين أُخذت هذه الصورة في 1975، كانت الوحدة 6 قيد الإنشاء. (الشَمال هو إلى اليمين)

    في 11 مارس 2011 الساعة 16:36 بتوقيت اليابان، a nuclear emergency situation (Article 15 of the Japanese law on Special Measures Concerning Nuclear Emergency Preparedness) was declared when "the status of reactor water coolant injection could not be confirmed for the emergency core cooling systems of Units 1 and 2". The alert was cleared "when the reactor water level monitoring function was restored for Unit 1." However, it was reinstated at 17:07 JST.[64] Potentially radioactive steam was released from the primary circuit into the secondary containment area to reduce mounting pressure.[65]

    In the early hours of 12 March TEPCO reported that radiation levels were rising in the turbine building for Reactor Unit 1[66] and that it was considering venting some of the mounting pressure into the atmosphere, which could result in the release of some radiation.[67] Chief Cabinet Secretary Yukio Edano stated later in the morning that the amount of potential radiation would be small and that the prevailing winds are blowing out to sea.[68] At 02:00 JST, the pressure inside the reactor containment was reported to be 600 kPa (6 bar or 87 psi), 200 kPa higher than under normal conditions.[6] At 05:30 JST the pressure inside Reactor 1 was reported to be 2.1 times the "design capacity",[69] 820 kPa.[33] Rising heat within the containment area would have led to increasing pressure, with both cooling water pumps and ventilation fans for driving gases through heat exchangers within containment dependant on electricity.[70]Releasing gases from the reactor is necessary if pressure becomes too high and has the benefit of cooling the reactor as water boils off, but this also means cooling water is being lost and must be replaced.[63] Water inside the reactor should be only very slightly radioactive, but this assumes no damage to the fuel elements.

    In a press release at 07:00 JST 12 March, TEPCO stated, "Measurement of radioactive material (iodine, etc.) by monitoring car indicates increasing value compared to normal level. One of the monitoring posts is also indicating higher than normal level."[14] The gamma ray radiation recorded on the main gate was increased from 69 nanogray/hour (nGy/h, 1 gray ≡ 1 sievert for gamma radiation) (04:00 JST, 12 March) to 866 nGy/h 40 minutes later and reached the peak of 385.5 μSv/h at 10:30 JST.[71][14][72][73] At 13:30 JST, radioactive caesium-137 and iodine-131 was detected near reactor 1,[74] which indicates that some of the core was exposed due to a partial-meltdown or other damage of the nuclear fuel.[75] The NHK website reported that cooling water had lowered so much that parts of the nuclear fuel rods were exposed.[76] Radiation levels at the site boundary exceeded the regulatory limits.[77] Kyodo News Service later reported that partial melting may have occurred.[78][79][80][81] On 14 March 2011, Kyodo News reported radiation levels had continued to increase on the premises, measuring at 02:20 an intensity of 751 μSv/hour on one location and at 02:40 an intensity of 650 μSv/hour at another location on the premises.[82]


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    انفجار مبنى المفاعل 1

    مكونات وعوامل الأمان لمفاعل الماء المغلي.
    (المصدر: أحمد مغربي، جريدة الحياة، 15-03-2011.)
    أول انفجار في محطة فوكوشيما-1، الوحدة 1.


    At 15:36 JST on 12 March 2011 there was an explosion at Unit 1. Four workers were injured, and the upper shell of the reactor building was blown away leaving in place its steel frame.[83][84] The outer building is designed to provide ordinary weather protection for the areas inside, but not to withstand the high pressure of an explosion or to act as containment for the reactor. في مفاعلات فوكوشيما-1، الاحتواء الرئيسي يتكون من "drywell" and "wetwell" concrete structures immediately surrounding the reactor pressure vessel.[33][85]

    Experts soon agreed that the cause was a hydrogen explosion.[34][86][87] Almost certainly the hydrogen was formed inside the reactor vessel[34] because of falling water levels, and this hydrogen then leaked into the containment building.[34] Exposed metal fuel rods become very hot and can then react with steam oxidising the metal and releasing hydrogen. Safety devices should ignite the hydrogen when it is vented before explosive concentrations are reached but apparently these systems failed, or could not be operated due to the shortage of electrical power.

    صور قبل وبعد انفجار الوحدة 1.

    Officials indicated that the container of the reactor had remained intact and there had been no large leaks of radioactive material,[33][34] although an increase in radiation levels was confirmed following the explosion.[88][89] ABC news reported that according to the Fukushima prefectural government, the radiation from the plant reached 1,015 µSv/h.[90] Two independent nuclear experts cited design differences between the محطة تشرنوبل للطاقة النووية ومحطة فوكوشيما للطاقة النووية،[91][92] one of them saying he did not believe that a Chernobyl-style disaster will occur.[91]

    The IAEA stated on 13 March that four workers had been injured by the explosion at the Unit 1 reactor, and that three injuries were reported in other incidents at the site. They also reported one worker was exposed to higher-than-normal radiation levels but that fell below their guidance for emergency situations.[93]

    The Guardian reported at 17:35 JST on 12 March that NHK advised residents of the Fukushima area "to stay inside, close doors and windows and turn off air conditioning. They were also advised to cover their mouths with masks, towels or handkerchiefs" as well as not to drink tap water.[94] Air traffic has been restricted in a 20-kiloمتر (66,000 قدم) radius around the plant, according to a NOTAM.[95] The BBC has reported as of 22:49 JST (13:49 GMT) "A team from the National Institute of Radiological Sciences has been dispatched to Fukushima as a precaution, reports NHK. It was reportedly made up of doctors, nurses and other individuals with expertise in dealing with radiation exposure, and had been taken by helicopter to a base 5 km from the nuclear plant."[96]

    ومن 90 مريض طريح الفراش منقولين من المستشفي في بلدة فوتابا-ماتشي، اُختُبر ثلاث مرضى وأظهروا أنهم تعرضوا للإشعاع. The patients had been waiting outdoors for rescuers before being moved by helicopter at the time when an explosion happened.[97][98]

    استخدام مياه البحر للتبريد

    في الساعة 20:05 يوم 12 مارس 2011، حسب فانون التنظيم النووي وتعليمات رئيس الوزراء، the Japanese government ordered seawater to be used in Unit 1 in an effort to cool down the degraded reactor core.[99] At 21:00 JST TEPCO announced that they planned to cool the leaking reactor with seawater (which started at 20:20 JST), then using boric acid to act as a neutron absorber to prevent a criticality accident.[100][101] The water would take five to ten hours to fill the reactor core, after which it would need to stay for cooling for around ten days.[34] At 23:00 JST TEPCO announced that due to the quake at 22:15[102] the filling of the reactor had been temporarily stopped but has been resumed after a short while.[33][103] Filling the reactor with seawater will contaminate the reactor with impure water, a substance not usually allowed in reactors, meaning the reactor will likely be decommissioned.[104]

    أفادت نيسا عن بدء ضخ مياه البحر في سفن الحاويات الأولية من الساعة 11.55، 13 مارس. في الساعة 01:10 في 14 مارس توقف ضخ مياه البحر لتسربها من أحواض المحطة، كذلك تم ايقاف الضخ للوحدة 3). أوقف ضخ المياه في الساعة 3:20.

    أعلنت نيسا عن تضرر 70% من قضبان الوقود في تقارير اخبارية صباح 16 مارس.[105]


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    مفاعل الوحدة 2

    كان مفاعل الوحدة الثانية يعمل أثناء الزلزال وتم فيها نفس اجراءات التبريد بعد الزلزال (إمدادات الطاقة بواسطة محر الديزل، والذي توقف بعد ساعة)، وأعلن عن استقرار مستويات المياه. كان يتم امداده بالطاقة عن طريق وحدات الطاقة المتحركة، وجرت الاستعدادات لأداء تنفيس ضغط البخار.

    مشكلات التبريد في الوحدة 2

    في 14 مارس، الساعة 15:29 حسب توقيت اليابان، أفادت وكالات الأنباء عن توقف أنظمة التبريد في الوحدة 1 وعن انخفاض مستويات المياه.[106][107] وحدث هذا نتيجة استنفاد مضخات الوقود.[108] فيما بعد أفادت وكالات جيجي للأنباء أن قضبان الوقود النووي في مفاعل الوحدة 2 انكشفت تماما مما يجعل المفاعل عرضة لخطر الإنهيار الكامل.[109] Jiji later reported that according to TEPCO, a meltdown cannot be ruled out.[110]

    في الساعة 22.29 بتوقيت اليابان، أعلنت هيئة الإذاعة اليابانية عن تمكن العاملين بالمحطة من غمر نصف المفاعل بالمياه. بالرغم من ذلك، في الوقت نفسه، لا يزال جزء من القضبان مكشوفا، ولم يستطع الفنيون نفي احتمال إنهيار المفاعل.[111]قالب:Broken link جرى العمل على هدم أجزاء من جدران المفاعل 2 للسماح بخروج الهيدروجين وأملا في منع إنفجار آخر.[112] في الساعة 21:37 ارتفعت قياسات الإشعاعات عند بوابة المفاعل ووصلت لأقصى دراجاتها 3.13 ملليسفرتس في الساعة، مما كان كافيا لإيصال الحد السنوي non-nuclear workers في عشرين دقيقة،[112] لكنه انخفض خلال ساعة إلى 0.326 ملليسفرتس في الساعة 22:35.[113]

    ويعتقد أنه حوالي الساعة 23:00 حدث إنهيار كامل لقضبان الوقود بالمفاعل بعد انفجار ثاني.[112][114] في الساعة 00:30 يوم 15 مارس، أذاعت هيئة الإذاعة اليابانية مؤتمر صحفي مباشر مع تبيكو أعلن فيه عن انخفاض مستوى المياه مرة أخرى أسفل القضبان وعن ارتفاع معدل الضغط. وأن إنفجار الهيدروجين في الوحدة 3 يمكن أن يؤدي إلى خلل في نظام التبريد في الوحدة 3. هذا بالإضافة توقف آخر مضخة عن العمل.[115] To replenish the water, the contained pressure would have to be lowered first by opening a valve of the vessel. Due to an accident the unit's air flow gauge was turned off. With the gauge turned off, flow of water into the reactor was blocked, leading to full exposure of the rods.[112][116]

    As of 04:11 JST (March 15), water was being pumped into the reactor of unit 2 again.[117] At 10:38 JST, March 15, water level was reported to be at 1.20 meters and rising.[118]

    انفجار مبنى المفاعل 2

    سمع دوي إنفجار في الساعة 06:10 يوم 15 مارس بالوحدة 2، ويحتمل أنه ألحق أضرار بنظام الضغط-الإخماد، الذي يقع في الجزء العلوي للحاوية.[119][120] The radiation level was reported to exceed the legal limit and the plant's operator started to evacuate all non-essential workers from the plant.[121] Only a skeleton crew of 50 men was left at the site.[122] Soon after, Kyodo News reported that radiation had risen to 8.2 millisieverts per hour[123] around two hours after the explosion—about eight times what one usually is exposed to within a whole year—and again down to 2.4 millisieverts , shortly after.[124] Three hours after the explosion the radiation has risen to 11.9 millisieverts per hour.[125]

    While admitting that the suppression pool at the bottom of the containment vessel had been damaged in the explosion, causing a drop of pressure there, Japanese nuclear authorities emphasized that the containment had not been breached as a result of the explosion and contained no obvious holes.[126]

    The head of the UN's nuclear watchdog said that there was a "possibility of core damage" at the No. 2 unit of the damaged Fukushima power plant. The damage would be "less than five percent", IAEA chief Yukiya Amano said, according to Reuters.

    مفاعل الوحدة 3

    Unlike the other five reactor units, reactor 3 runs on mixed uranium and plutonium oxide, or MOX fuel, making it potentially more dangerous in an incident due to the neutronic effects of plutonium on the reactor and the carcinogenic effects in the event of release to the environment.[78][127][128]

    مشكلات التبريد في الوحدة 3

    Early on 13 March 2011, an official of the Japan Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency told a news conference that the emergency cooling system of Unit 3 had failed, spurring an urgent search for a means to supply cooling water to the reactor vessel in order to prevent a meltdown of its reactor core.[129] At 05:38 there was no means of adding coolant to the reactor due to loss of power. Work to restore power and vent pressure continued.[130] At one point, the top three meters of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel rods were exposed.[131]

    At 07:30 JST, TEPCO prepared to release radioactive steam, indicating that "the amount of radiation to be released would be small and not of a level that would affect human health"[132] and manual venting took place at 08:41 and 09:20.[18] At 09:25 JST on 13 March 2011, operators began injecting water containing boric acid into the primary containment vessell (PCV) via a fire pump.[133][134] When water levels continued to fall and pressure to rise, the injected water was switched to sea water at 13:12.[130] By 15:00 it was noted that despite adding water the level in the reactor did not rise and radiation had increased.[135] A rise was eventually recorded but the level stuck at 2m below the top of reactor core. Other readings suggested that this could not be the case and the gauge was malfunctioning.[18]

    توقع ضخ المياه في الساعة 01:10 يوم 14 مارس لإمتلاء كل الأحواض الاحتياطية. وأعيد ضخ المياه مرة أخرى في الساعة 03:20.[134]

    حوالي 10.00 بتوقيت اليابان، 16 مارس، حلقت مروحيات الدفاع المدني على ارتفاع 30 كم فوق مرافق محطة فوكوشيما 1. ويعتقد المسؤولون أن مفاعل الوحدة 3 أكثر الأماكن تضررا، وأن هناك احتمال حدوث تصدع في نظام الحاويات الخاص به.[136] تم إخلاء حجرة التحكم في المفاعل 3 و4 في الساعة 10:45 لكن سمح للعاملين باستئناف عملية ضخ المياه في الساعة 11:30.[137] في الساعة 16:12 كانت مروحيات الدفاع المدني تستعد لرش المياه على الوحدة 3، عندما ارتفعت رغاوي بيضاء من المبنى ويعتقد أنها ناتجة عن الماء المغلي الخارج من حوض تبريد قضبان الوقود في الطابق العلوي. تم إلغاء المهمة بعد تسجيل المروحيات قياسات إشعاعية عالية وصلت إلى 50 mSv.[138][139] في الساعة 21:06 مساءا، صرحت الحكومة بأن تلفا كبيرا قد أصاب المفاعل 3 ولكنه لم يصل للدرجة الخطرة.[140] في صباح 17 مارس، طلبت تبكو مساعدة الجيش لسكب المياه على المفاعل مرة أخرى باستخدام المروحيات[141] وبدأت المروحيات مهمتها في الساعة 9:45.[142]

    انفجار مبنى المفاعل 3

    At 12:33 JST on 13 March 2011, the chief spokesman of the Japanese government, Yukio Edano said that hydrogen was building up inside the outer building of unit 3 just as it had in unit 1, threatening the same kind of explosion.[143] At 11:15 JST on 14 March 2011, the envisaged explosion of the building surrounding Reactor 3 of Fukushima 1 occurred, due to the ignition of built up hydrogen gas.[144][145] It was reported that as with Reactor 1, the top section of the reactor building was blown apart, but the inner containment vessel was not breached. The explosion was larger than that in unit 1, being felt 25 miles away, but pressure readings within the reactor remained steady around 380 kPa at 11:13 and 360 kPa at 11:55 compared to nominal levels of 400 kPa and a maximum recorded of 840 kPa. Water injection continued. Radiation levels of 0.05 mSv/h were recorded in the service hall and of 0.02 mSv/h at the plant entrance.[146] Eleven people were reported injured in the blast.[147][148]

    On the morning of 15 March 2011 (JST),Chief Cabinet Secretary Yukio Edano announced that according to the Tokyo Electric Power Company, the radiation from reactor unit 3 reached 400 millisieverts per hour.[46][47]

    مفاعل الوحدة 4

    At 09:40 JST on 15 March 2011, the Unit 4 spent fuel pool caught fire, likely releasing radioactive contamination from the fuel stored there.[149][150] TEPCO said workers extinguished the fire by 12:00. As radiation levels rose, some of the employees still at the plant were evacuated.[151][152] The fire has been put out.[153][154] Reason for the fire seems to have been a hydrogen explosion.[155]

    On the morning of 15 March 2011 (JST), Secretary Edano announced that according to the Tokyo Electric Power Company, the radiation from the reactor unit 4 reached 100 millisieverts/h.[46][47] Government speaker Edano has stated that there was no continued release of radiation.[156]

    Japan's nuclear safety agency has said there were two holes of 8 m2 (86 sq feet) in a wall of the outer building of the number 4 reactor after an explosion there.[157] Further, Reuters reported on 17:48 JST that the water of the pool containing the spent fuel might be boiling.[158][159]

    As of 21:13 JST, radiation inside unit 4 had increased so much inside the control room that employees could not stay there permanently any more.[160]Seventy staff remained on site but 800 had been evacuated.[161] By 22:30 JST, TEPCO was reported to be unable to pour water into No. 4 reactor's storage pool for spent fuel.[162] At around 22:50 JST, it was reported that TEPCO was considering using helicopters to drop water on the spent fuel storage pool.[161][163][164] في الساعة 04:00 يوم 14 مارس، وصلت درجة حرارة المياه في الحوض 84°س بالمقارنة بالدرجة الطبيعية 40-50°س.[165] وصرحت الوكالة الدولية للطاقة الذرية بأن درجة الحرارة بالحوض لا تزال عند 84°س في الساعة 19:00 يوم 15 مارس، لكن لم تتوافر أي معلومات يومي 16 و17 مارس.[48]

    مفاعل الوحدة 5 و6

    أعلن المتحدث باسم الحكومة اليابانة في 15 مارس أن المفاعلات 5 و6 يجرى مراقبتهما عن كثب، وأن عمليات التبريد لا تعمل بشكل جيد.[156][166]


    On 17 March One of the emergency generators for unit 6 was operable and providing power to units 5 and 6 to run the Make up Water Condensate System (MUWC). Preparations were made to inject water into the reactor pressure vessel once mains power could be restored to the plant.[167]

    Information provided to the IAEA indicated that storage pool temperatures at both units 5 and 6 remained steady around 60°C between 19:00 JST 14 March and 14:00 JST 16 March.[168]

    ملخص حالة المفاعلات

    المنتدى الصناعي النووي الياباني (JAIF) قام بتحدث جدول ملخص وضع المفاعلات في محطة فوكوشيما 1 وينشر تحديثها بطريقة شبه منتظمة.[169][170][171][172][173]

    حالة فوكوشيما 1 في الساعة
    17 مارس 22:00 JST
    (17 مارس 13:00 التوقيت العالمي)[173]
    وحدة 1 وحدة 2 وحدة 3 وحدة 4 وحدة 5 وحدة 6
    مخرج الطاقة (MWe) 460 784 784 784 784 1,100
    نوع المفاعل BWR-3 BWR-4 BWR-4 BWR-4 BWR-4 BWR-5
    Core fuel assemblies[174] 400 548 548 0 548 764
    Spent fuel assemblies[175] 292 587 514 1,331 826 876
    نوع الوقود يورانيوم منخفض التخصيب يورانيوم منخفض التخصيب اوكسيد-مختلط (MOX) يورانيوم منخفض التخصيب يورانيوم منخفض التخصيب يورانيوم منخفض التخصيب
    الوضع وقت الزلزال في الخدمة في الخدمة في الخدمة خارج الخدمة (scheduled) خارج الخدمة (scheduled) خارج الخدمة (scheduled)
    Fuel integrity تضرر بنسبة 70% (تقديرات)[105] تضرر بنسبة 33% (تقديرات)[105] تضرر، MOX fuel Spent fuel damaged لم يتضرر لم يتضرر
    Reactor pressure vessel integrity غير معلوم غير معلوم (ضرر متوقع) غير معلوم (ضرر متوقع) لم يتضرر (defueled) لم يتضرر لم بتضرر
    Containment integrity لم يتضرر ضرر متوقع ضرر متوقع لم يتضرر لم يتضرر لم يتضرر
    Core cooling system 1 (ECCS/RHR) Not functional Not functional Not functional Not necessary (defueled) غير هام غير هام
    Core cooling system 2 (RCIC/MUWC) Not functional Not functional Not functional غير هام (defueled) غير هام غير هام
    Building integrity Severely damaged Slightly damaged Severely damaged Severely damaged Not damaged Not damaged
    Pressure vessel, water level حوالي نصف الوقود أكثر من نصف الوقود حوالي نصف الوقود آمن (defueled) Safe but dropping آمن
    ضغط الوعاء مستقر غير معلوم؛ تلفت البطاريات مستقر آمن (defueled) آمن آمن
    Containment pressure غير معلوم Drywell: Unknown, Suppression pool: Atmosphere مستقر آمن آمن آمن
    ضخ مياه البحر للبؤرة مستمر مستمر مستمر غير مهمة (defueled) غير مهم Not necessary
    ضخ مياه البحر للوعاء الحاوي مستمرة سوف يقرر مستمر ير مهم ير مهم ير مهم
    Containment venting مستمر تحت التحضير مستمر ير مهم ير مهم ير مهم
    Integrity of fuel in Spent Fuel Pool (SFP) (لا يوجد بيانات) (لا يوجد بيانات) SFP level low,
    بدء ضخ المياه
    SFP level low,
    Preparing water injection,
    Damage to fuel rods suspected
    SFP temperature increasing SFP temperature increasing
    التأثير البيئي (NPS border) 646 μSv/ساعة(0.646 mSv/h) في الساعة 11:10، 17 مارس
    قطر الإخلاء 20 كم عن محطة الطاقة النووية (NPS). الأشخاص المقيمون في قطر 20 كم إلى 30 كم في محيط محطة الطاقة النووية فوكوشيما 1 يلزمون منازلهم. الولايات المتحدة، أستراليا وكوريا الجنوبية نصحوا مواطنيهم بالإخلاء لمسافة 80 كم. نصحت إسبانيا بترك مسافة 120 كم، نصحت ألمانيا بترك منطقة طوكيو الحضرية بالكامل.[176]
    INES المستوى 4 (حسب تقدير وكالة الأمان الصناعي والنووي السابانية وصدقت عليه الوكالة الدولية للطاقة الذرية); مستوى 6 (قدرته الهيئة النووية الفرنسية والفنلندية[بحاجة لمصدر] nuclear authorities)[177][178][179]

    حلول مقترحة أو تم تطبيقها

    الحل التأثير العام التأثير المحدد

    (color legend below)

    بؤر المفاعل   حوض الوقود المستهلك
    1 2 3 4 5 6   1 2 3 4 5 6
    مولد الديزل الاحتياطي:

    The backup diesel generators were only active for one hour after the earthquake.

    Backup diesel generators failed after damage from the tsunami.[180]  
    وحدات الطاقة المتحركة:

    Normally, the reactors’ cooling systems pump water through the core containment areas and spent fuel pools. Due to the power loss after the earthquake, mobile power units were installed to provide power to pump water. [181][182]

    General Electric reported through spokesperson Michael Tetuan that they are sending 10 gas turbine generators to help replace lost power generating capacity but GE did not know where these turbines would be used.[183]

    Mobile power units were generally successful particularly at unit 2. However, it is unclear how many mobile power units are available locally or nationally and what fuel they require.[184]

    Regardless of partial power from mobile units, without full power, all of the cooling systems are less effective which led the water to overheat and water levels dropped below safe levels. Eventually, additional sea water had to be added along with the release of a buildup of radioactive steam.[185]

     
    تبريد بؤرة المفاعل باستخدام مياه البحر:

    Sea water is being "manually" "injected" into the core containment areas of units 1, 2 and 3. Neutron absorbing boric acid is being injected with the sea water.[186]

    Sea water cooling has been effective for cooling core containment areas of units 1, 2 and 3 but it is unclear how this sea water is being injected and whether it is necessary to replenish the water in the damaged sea water holding areas.[187]  
    رش المياه على أحواض الوقود المستهلك عن طريق شاحنات مزودة بمدافع مياه:

    Riot police and military used riot-control water cannons to spray 30 tonnes[188] of water onto the roofs and into the spent fuel pools of reactor unit Number 3 although it is unclear if any water reached the spent fuel pool.[189] [190][191] Officials considered spraying water onto the roof of unit Number 4 also.[192]

    Steam emanated from the roof of unit 3 after spraying which suggested that spraying was at least partially successful in reaching overheated spent fuel rods.[193][194] Radiation levels dropped slightly after the steam had dissipated suggesting the cooling may have been successful.[195]  
    مروحيات تلقي مياه البحر على أحواض الوقود:

    Helicopters used for forest fire suppression dumped sea water onto the reactors.[196]

    Strong winds prevented effective targeting of the dumped water since high radiation levels prevented the helicopters from flying low.[197][198] Furthermore, footage captured appeared to show much of the water dispersing in mid-air weakening the intensity of the water to cool the overheating reactor.[199]  
    إصلاح خطوط الطاقة:

    New and repaired power lines are being completed that could provide power to the original cooling systems and pumps.[200]

    A power line was laid to reconnect power to unit Number 2.[201]  
    اعادة الضخ بإصلاح خطوط الكهرباء:

    Officials will attempt to restart water pumps tomorrow.

    The original water pumps may be inoperable due to damage from injected sea water, the earthquake, tsunami or explosions.[202]  
    صور الاستشعار الحراري الجوي:

    To determine effective solutions and to focus ongoing efforts, infrared photos will identify "hot spots" among the reactors and spent fuel pools.[203]

     
    صفائح كربيد البورون:

    Insertion or targeted aerial dropping of boronated plastic beads or boron carbide pellets into the spent fuel pools to absorb neutrons.[204]

     
    القصدير المبرد:

    Ukrainian engineers with Chernobyl experience suggest:

    ". . . the type of reactor fuel coolant needs to be changed - water, which might trigger a steam-zirconium reaction fraught with the release of hydrogen and potential blasts, should be replaced with low-melting and chemically neutral metal, for instance tin which will pull heat away from the fuel rods (molten or damaged) towards the inner walls of the reactor, while continuing to use sea water to cool down its outer walls."
    "The tin 'lake' inside the reactor will "reduce the discharge of heavy fission products and bring ionizing radiation levels down. Chipped tin could be pumped in through steam communications under pressure using cylinders with helium or argon."[205]
     
    فعال فعالية جزئية غير فعال غير قابل للتطبيق أو لم يحاول تطبيقه

    التلوث الإشعاعي

    Chief Cabinet Secretary, Yukio Edano, said that radiation levels at 10:22 (JST) of 15 March 2011, were 30 mSv/h between the No. 2 and the No. 3 units, 400 mSv/h near No. 3 and 100 mSv/h near No. 4. He indicated that "There is no doubt that unlike in the past, the figures are the level at which human health can be affected,"[206]

    Radiation sickness typically occurs at about 1000 millisieverts total dose.[207] Normal background radiation varies from place to place but is around 2.4 millisievert per year (or about 0.3 µSv/h).[208] Prime Minister Naoto Kan urged people living between 20 and 30 kilometers of the plant to stay indoors, "The danger of further radiation leaks (from the plant) is increasing," Kan warned the public at a press conference, while asking people to "act calmly".[209][210]

    A spokesman for Japan's nuclear safety agency said TEPCO had told it that radiation levels in Ibaraki, between Fukushima and Tokyo, had risen. "The level does not pose health risks," the spokesman said. The Tokyo metropolitan government said it has detected radioactive material, such as iodine and cesium, up to 40 times normal levels in Saitama, near Tokyo.[209][206] Radiation levels in Tokyo were at one point measured at 0.8 μSv/hour although they were later measured at "about twice the normal level". [211] Later, on 15 March 2011, Edano reported that radiation levels were lower. A changed wind direction dispersed radiation away from the land and back over the Pacific Ocean.[212]

    البحرية الأمريكية

    The US Navy dispatched aircraft carrier يوإس‌إس Ronald Reagan and other vessels flew a series of helicopter operations.[213] [214] A U.S. military spokesperson had said that low-level radiation was detected both by navy ships and their accompanying aircraft, forcing a change of course of the 7th fleet, en route to Sendai.[215] USS Ronald Reagan and sailors onboard were exposed to a month's worth of radiation in an hour and the carrier was repositioned.[216] 17 U.S. sailors were decontaminated after they and the 3 helicopters they were on were found to have been contaminated with low-levels of radioactive particulates.[217]

    The يوإس‌إس George Washington was docked for maintenance in Yokosuka Naval Base, about 175 miles (280 kilometers) from the plant, when instruments detected the radiation at 7 a.m. Tuesday (6 p.m. ET Monday), the Navy said in a statement.[218] At 320 kilometers from Fukushima, Rear Admiral Richard Wren stated that the nuclear crisis in Fukushima is happening too far from Yokosuka to even warrant a discussion about evacuating base residents.[219] However, limited precautionary measures were recommended for Yokosuka and Atsugi bases: limiting outdoor activities and securing external ventilation systems.[220]

    ردود فعل الحكومة

    زيارات رئيس الوزراء للمحطة

    قام رئيس وزراء اليابان ناوتو كان بزيارة قصيرة لوحدة فوكشيما 1 في 12 مارس 2011.[221]

    إعلان الحكومة لإحتمال انصهار نووي

    In a press conference, the chief spokesman of the Japanese nuclear authorities was translated into English as having said that a nuclear meltdown may be a possibility at Unit 1.[222] Toshihiro Bannai, director of the international affairs office of Japan's Nuclear and Industrial Safety, in a telephone interview with CNN, stated that a meltdown was possible.[223][222] However, the Japanese prime minister soon indicated that a nuclear meltdown was not in progress and emphasized that the containment of Unit 1 was still intact. After the statement, the government added that the claim of a meltdown had been mistranslated.[222] The temperature inside the reactor was not reported, but Japanese regulators said it was not dropping as quickly as they wanted.[224] At 12:33 JST on 13 March 2011, the Chief Cabinet Secretary of the Japanese government, Yukio Edano, was reported to have confirmed that there was a “significant chance” that radioactive fuel rods had partially melted in Unit 3 and Unit 1, or that "it was 'highly possible' a partial meltdown was underway".[30] “I am trying to be careful with words ... This is not a situation where the whole core suffers a meltdown”.[143] Soon after, Edano disclaimed that a meltdown was in progress. He stated that the radioactive fuel rods had not partially melted and he emphasized that there was no danger for the health of the population.[225][226] Cabinet Secretary Edano later said that there were signs that the fuel rods were melting in all three reactors. "Although we cannot directly check it, it's highly likely happening".[227]

    إخلاءات

    After the declaration of a nuclear emergency by the Government at 19:03 on 11 March, the Fukushima prefecture ordered the evacuation of an estimated 1,864 people within a distance of 2km from the plant. This was extended to 3 kiloمترs (9,800 قدم) and 5,800 people at 21:23 by a directive to the local governor from the Prime Minister, together with instructions for residents within 10 kiloمترs (33,000 قدم) of the plant to stay indoors.[99][228] The evacuation was expanded to a 10 kiloمترs (33,000 قدم) radius at 5:44 on 12 March, and then to 20 kiloمترs (66,000 قدم) at 18:25, shortly before ordering use of sea water for emergency cooling.[99][229]

    Evacuations were also ordered around the nearby Fukushima II (Daini) plant. Residents within 3 kiloمترs (9,800 قدم) were ordered to evacuate at 07:45 on 12 March, again with instructions for those within 10km to stay indoors. Evacuation was extended to 10km by 17:39.[99] A journalistic investigation was stopped 60 kiloمترs (37 ميل) from the plants by police.[230] Over 50,000 people were evacuated during 12 March.[231] The figure increased to 170,000–200,000 people on 13 March, after officials voiced the possibility of a meltdown.[29][30]

    On the morning of 15 March, the evacuation area was again extended. Prime Minister Naoto Kan issued instructions that any remaining people within a 20km (12 mile) zone around the plant must leave, and urged that those living between 20km and 30km from the site should stay indoors.[232][233]A 30km no-fly zone has been introduced around the plant.

    ردود فعل الوكالة الذرية

    At 01:17 JST on Sunday 13 March 2011, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency announced that it was rating the Fukushima accidents at 4 (accident with local consequences) on the 0–7 International Nuclear Event Scale (INES), below the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident in seriousness[39] which was at 5. A rating of 4 would make the severity of the Fukushima event comparable to Sellafield accidents between 1955 and 1979.

    This has been questioned by the French ASN nuclear safety authority. They say the accident can be classed as a 5 or 6, which would be comparable to or worse than the Three Mile Island accident.[234]

    تقدير المخاطر من قبل العلماء

    David A. Lochbaum of the anti-nuclear group Union of Concerned Scientists pointed to the fact that pools holding spent fuel rods in the top level of the reactor buildings could release even larger quantities of hazardous substances than a meltdown and blow them high up into the atmosphere, if those rods should not be managed to be kept cooled at their position close to the affected reactors so that the old rods would catch fire.[235][236]

    Masashi Goto, a former Toshiba reactor researcher and designer, warned that mixed oxide (MOX) fuel used in reactor 3 of the Fukushima I (Daiichi) plant contained plutonium which is more toxic than the fuel used in the other reactors. However, so far the fuel has not been released into the environment.[237]

    ردود الفعل الدولية

    الاقتصاد

    As a result of the incident, many energy companies reliant on non-renewable sources and listed on stock exchanges have seen drops in their stock prices, while, conversely, renewable energy companies have had dramatic increases in value.[238]

    الصين

    During a News Conference of the Annual Meeting of National People’s Congress of China, The Deputy Chief of Environmental Protection Authority of China, Mr Lijun Zhang said: ‘We are concerning the damage of the Nuclear Facility of Japan, concerning the further development of this issue, we will learn from it, and will absorb relevantly when we made the nuclear energy development strategy and planning in future. But, Our decision on development of more nuclear power plants and current arrangement on nuclear energy development will not be changed. [239]

    الاتحاد الاوروبي

    In an interview on ORF2, Austrian Environment Minister Nikolaus Berlakovich said that he would enter a request at the environmental meeting of the in Brussels 14 March 2011 for a review of reactor safety. He emphasized both coolant and containment and compared these measures to reviews of the financial system after the banking crisis of 2008.[240]

    ألمانيا

    During the chancellorship of Gerhard Schröder, the social democratic-green government had decreed ألمانيا's final retreat from using nuclear power by 2022, but the phase-out plan was delayed in late 2010, when during the chancellorship of Angela Merkel the conservative-liberal government decreed a 12-year delay of the schedule.[241] This delay provoked protests, including a human chain of 50,000 from Stuttgart to the nearby nuclear plant in Neckarwestheim. This protest had long been scheduled for March 12, which now happened to be the day of the explosion of reactor block 1.[242] Merkel on 14 March 2011 about-faced and declared a 3-months moratorium on the reactor lifespan extension passed in 2010.[243] It is not yet clear what Merkel's moratorium will mean in practice, but there is a possibility that older nuclear plants like Neckarwestheim I might be shut down – for just three months or for good.[243] On March 15, the German government announced that it would temporarily shut down 7 of its 17 reactors; all reactors that went online before 1981.[244]

    الهند

    أمرت حكومة الهند شركة الطاقة النووية الهندية المحدودة بمراجعة أنظمة الأمان وتصميمات جميع مفاعلات الطاقة النووية. كما تتطلع أيضا إلى وضع ضوابط بيئية إضافية لسلامة المفاعلات النووية المزمع إنشائها حديثا. [245]

    الولايات المتحدة

    نشرت نيويورك تايمز أن "المأساة اليابانية يجب أن تدفع الأمريكان لدراسة عميقة لخططنا" للتعامل مع الكوارث الطبيعية والحوادث النووية المحتملة للتأكد من كونها بالقوة الكافية واقعيا. لقد رأينا بالفعل how poor defenses left New Orleans vulnerable to Hurricane Katrina and how industrial folly and hubris led to a devastating blowout and oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico".[246]

    Mark Hibbs, a senior associate at the Carnegie Endowment's Nuclear Policy Program, reiterated the theme that "[T]his was a wake-up call for anyone who believed that, after 50 years of nuclear power in this world, we have figured it out and can go back to business as usual."[247]


    معرض الصور

    انظر أيضا

    المصادر

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