صياد جامع - Hunter-gatherer

هذه صفحة مكتوبة بالعربية البسيطة، انظر الصفحة الأصلية
Pygmy hunter-gatherers in the Congo Basin in 2014

A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals). Hunter-gatherer societies stand in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.

Hunting and gathering was humanity's first and most successful adaptation, occupying at least 90 percent of human history.[1] Following the invention of agriculture, hunter-gatherers who did not change have been displaced or conquered by farming or pastoralist groups in most parts of the world.[2]

Only a few contemporary societies are classified as hunter-gatherers, and many supplement their foraging activity with horticulture or pastoralism.[3][4] Contrary to common misconception, hunter-gatherers are mostly well-fed, rather than starving.[5]

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Archaeological evidence[تحرير | عدل المصدر]


Common characteristics[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

A San man from Namibia. Many San still live as hunter-gatherers.

Habitat and population[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

Most hunter-gatherers are nomadic or semi-nomadic and live in temporary settlements. Mobile communities typically construct shelters using impermanent building materials, or they may use natural rock shelters, where they are available.


Mbendjele meat sharing


Variability[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

Savanna Pumé couple on a hunting and gathering trip in the llanos of Venezuela. The man carries a bow, three steel-tipped arrows, and a hat that resembles the head of a jabiru stork as camouflage to approach near enough to deer for a shot. The woman carries a steel-tipped digging stick and a carrying basket for collecting wild tubers.


Modern and revisionist perspectives[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

A Shoshone encampment in the Wind River Mountains of Wyoming, photographed by Percy Jackson, 1870


Three Indigenous Australians on Bathurst Island in 1939. According to Peterson (1998), the island was a population isolated for 6,000 years until the eighteenth century. In 1929, three-quarters of the population supported themselves off the bush.[6]


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Americas[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

See also: Paleo-Indians period (Canada) and History of Mesoamerica (Paleo-Indian)

Evidence suggests big-game hunter-gatherers crossed the Bering Strait from Asia (Eurasia) into North America over a land bridge (Beringia), that existed between 47,000–14,000 years ago.[7] Around 18,500–15,500 years ago, these hunter-gatherers are believed to have followed herds of now-extinct Pleistocene megafauna along ice-free corridors that stretched between the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets.[8] Another route proposed is that, either on foot or using primitive boats, they migrated down the Pacific coast to South America.[9][10]


See also[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

Negritos in the Philippines, 1595.

Modern hunter-gatherer groups[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

Social movements[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

  • Anarcho-primitivism, which strives for the abolishment of civilization and the return to a life in the wild.
  • Freeganism involves gathering of food (and sometimes other materials) in the context of an urban or suburban environment.
  • Gleaning involves the gathering of food that traditional farmers have left behind in their fields.
  • Paleolithic diet, which strives to achieve a diet similar to that of ancient hunter-gatherer groups.
  • Paleolithic lifestyle, which extends the paleolithic diet to other elements of the hunter-gatherer way of life, such as movement and contact with nature

References[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

  1. ^ Lee, Richard B.; Daly, Richard Heywood (1999). Cambridge Encyclopedia of Hunters and Gatherers. Cambridge University Press. p. inside front cover. ISBN 978-0521609197.
  2. ^ Stephens, Lucas; Fuller, Dorian; Boivin, Nicole; Rick, Torben; Gauthier, Nicolas; Kay, Andrea; Marwick, Ben; Armstrong, Chelsey Geralda; Barton, C. Michael (2019-08-30). "Archaeological assessment reveals Earth's early transformation through land use". Science (in الإنجليزية). 365 (6456): 897–902. doi:10.1126/science.aax1192. hdl:10150/634688. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 31467217.
  3. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة :0
  4. ^ Greaves, Russell D.; et al. (2016). "Economic activities of twenty-first century foraging populations". Why Forage? Hunters and Gatherers in the Twenty-First Century. Santa Fe, Albuquerque: School for Advanced Research, University of New Mexico Press. pp. 241–262. ISBN 978-0826356963.
  5. ^ Visualizing Human Geography, Second edition, Alyson L. Greinerقالب:ISBN?
  6. ^ Peterson, Nicolas; Taylor, John (1998). "Demographic transition in a hunter-gatherer population: the Tiwi case, 1929–1996". Australian Aboriginal Studies. Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies. 1998.
  7. ^ "Atlas of the Human Journey-The Genographic Project". National Geographic Society. 1996–2008. Archived from the original on 2011-05-01. Retrieved 2009-10-06.
  8. ^ "The peopling of the Americas: Genetic ancestry influences health". Scientific American. Retrieved 2009-11-17.
  9. ^ Fladmark, K. R. (January 1979). "Alternate Migration Corridors for Early Man in North America". American Antiquity. 1. 44 (1): 55–69. doi:10.2307/279189. JSTOR 279189.
  10. ^ Eshleman, Jason A.; Malhi, Ripan S.; Smith, David Glenn (2003). "Mitochondrial DNA Studies of Native Americans: Conceptions and Misconceptions of the Population Prehistory of the Americas". Evolutionary Anthropology. University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. 12: 7–18. doi:10.1002/evan.10048. Retrieved 2009-11-17.


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Further reading[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

Books
Articles

External links[تحرير | عدل المصدر]


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