خوان بـِرون

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خوان دومينغو بـِرون
Juan Domingo Perón
Juan Perón 1946.jpg
President of Argentina
في المنصب
12 أكتوبر 1973 – 1 يوليو 1974
نائب الرئيس Isabel Martínez de Perón
سبقه Raúl Lastiri
خلفه Isabel Martínez de Perón
في المنصب
4 June 1946 – 21 سبتمبر 1955
نائب الرئيس Hortensio Quijano
Alberto Teisaire
سبقه Edelmiro Farrell
خلفه إدواردو لوناردي
نائب رئيس الأرجنتين
De facto
في المنصب
8 يوليو 1944 – 10 أكتوبر 1945
الرئيس Edelmiro Farrell
سبقه Edelmiro Farrell
خلفه خوان بيستاريني
رئيس الحزب العدلي
في المنصب
21 نوفمبر 1946 – 1 يوليو 1974
سبقه منصب مستحدث
خلفه Isabel Martínez de Perón
Minister of War
في المنصب
24 February 1944 – 10 October 1945
الرئيس Pedro Pablo Ramírez
Edelmiro Farrell
سبقه Pedro Pablo Ramírez
خلفه Eduardo Ávalos
Secretary of Labour and Social Security
في المنصب
1 December 1943 – 10 October 1945
الرئيس Pedro Pablo Ramírez
Edelmiro Farrell
سبقه Position established
خلفه Domingo Mercante
تفاصيل شخصية
وُلِد Juan Domingo Perón
(1895-10-08)8 أكتوبر 1895
Lobos, Buenos Aires, Argentina
توفي 1 يوليو 1974(1974-07-01) (عن عمر 78 عاماً)
Olivos, Buenos Aires، الأرجنتين
المدفن Museo Quinta 17 de Octubre
San Vicente, Buenos Aires، الأرجنتين
الحزب Labour Party (1945–1947)
الحزب العدلي (1947–1974)
الزوج Aurelia Tizón (ز. 1929; و. 1938)
Eva Duarte (ز. 1945; و. 1952)
Isabel Martínez Cartas (ز. 1961)
التوقيع
الخدمة العسكرية
الولاء Argentina
الخدمة/الفرع Argentine Army
سنوات الخدمة 1913–1945
الرتبة Lieutenant General

خوان دومينغو بـِرون Juan Domingo Perón، (النطق الإسباني: [ˈxwan doˈmiŋɡo peˈɾon]؛ 8 أكتوبر، 1895 - 1 يوليو 1974)، هو جنرال وسياسي أرجنتيني، انتخب ثلاث مرات لمنصب رئيس الأرجنتين، على الرغم من تمكنه من الخدمة لولاية واحد كاملة فقط، بعد عمله في مناصب حكومية مختلفة، منها وزير العدل ونائب الرئيس. نـُحـِّيَ عن الرئاسة عقب انقلاب عسكري عام 1955. وعاد إلى السلطة عام 1973 لفترة 9 أشهر، حتى وفاته في عام 1974 حيث خلفته زوجتها الثالثة ماريا إستلا مارتينز.

بـِرون وزوجته الثانية، إيفا دوارتى، يتمتعان بشعبية هائلة بين الأرجنتينيين، وحتى اليوم مازالا يُعتبران أيقونتين بين البيرونيين. امتدح أتباع الزوجين بـِرون جهودهما للقضاء على الفقر وتكريم العمل، بينما اعتبرهم منتقدوهم غوغائيين وديكتاتورين. أعطى بـِرون اسمه للحركة السياسية المعروفة باسم بيرونيزمو peronismo، التي هي في الأرجنتين الحالية يمثلها في الأساس الحزب العدلي.

تولى المقدم خوان بـِرون مهام رئاسة الجمهورية في الأرجنتين. وقبل ذلك بثلاث سنوات فقط كان بيرون مجرد موظف بسيط في وزارة العمل والشؤون الإجتماعية. وكان لزوجة رئيس الجمهورية إيفا بيرون تأثير كبير عليه. وهي راقصة سابقة غدت فيما بعد بطلة العديد من الروايات والأفلام والمسرحيات الاستعراضية. وقد سقط نظام حكم بيرون بسبب الفساد الإداري، إلا أنه سرعان ما فاز في الإنتخابات الرئاسية مجدداً، وتزوج امرأة اخرى ، راقصة أيضا في السابق. وقد ورثت إيزابيل منصب زوجها فغدت اول رئيسة جمهورية في العالم.

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الحكومة العسكرية 1943–1946[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

President Edelmiro Farrell (left) and his benefactor, Vice President Juan Perón, April, 1945.


Demonstration for Perón's release on one of Argentina's most fateful days (October 17, 1945)
The Peróns at their 1945 wedding.


السياسة الداخلية وفترة الرئاسة الأولى (1946–1952)[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

خوان بيرون

Perón and his running mate, Hortensio Quijano, leveraged popular support to victory over a Radical Civic Union-led opposition alliance by about 11% in the February 24, 1946 presidential elections.

President Perón at his 1946 inaugural parade.
Ángel Borlenghi, an erstwhile socialist who, as Interior Minister, oversaw new labor courts and the opposition.


President Perón (right) signs the nationalization of British-owned railways watched by Ambassador Sir Reginald Leeper, March 1948.

وقد رفض دخول General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (سلف منظمة التجارة العالمية) أو صندوق النقد الدولي.[1]


As president, Perón took an active interest in the development of sports in Argentina, hosting international events and sponsoring athletes like boxing great José María Gatica (left).


Reservoir of the Valle Grande hydroelectric dam, near San Rafael, Mendoza.
Repairs at the Río Santiago Shipyards.

Perón also prioritized the modernization of the Argentine Armed Forces, particularly its Air Force. Between 1947 and 1950, Argentina manufactured two advanced jet aircraft called Pulqui I (designed by the Argentine engineers Cardehilac, Morchio and Ricciardi with the French engineer Émile Dewoitine, condemned in France in absentia for collaborationism), and Pulqui II designed by German engineer Kurt Tank. In the test flights, the planes were flown by Lieutenant Edmundo Osvaldo Weiss and Tank himself, reaching 1000 km/h with the Pulqui II. Argentina continued testing the Pulqui II until 1959; in the tests, two pilots lost their lives.[2] The Pulqui project opened the door to two successful Argentinian planes: the IA 58 Pucará and the IA 63 Pampa manufactured at the Aircraft Factory of Córdoba.[3]

Production line at the state military industries facility, 1950; on line since 1927, Perón's budgets modernized and expanded the complex.
The CNEA's work resulted in a research reactor by 1957, one of the world's first.

In 1951, Perón announced that the Huemul Project would produce nuclear fusion before any other country. The project was led by an Austrian, Ronald Richter, who had been recommended by Kurt Tank. Tank expected to power his aircraft with Richter's invention. Perón announced that energy produced by the fusion process would be delivered in milk-bottle sized containers. Richter announced success in 1951, but no proof was given. The next year, Perón appointed a scientific team to investigate Richter's activities. Reports by José Antonio Balseiro and Mario Báncora revealed that the project was a fraud. After that, the Huemul Project was transferred to the Centro Atómico Bariloche (CAB) of the new National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) and to the physics institute of the Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, later named Instituto Balseiro (IB).[4]


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تدخلات وإسهامات إيفا بـِرون[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

First Lady Eva Perón (left) tending to the needy in her capacity as head of her foundation.


بـِرون والتجمعات اليهودية والألمانية في الأرجنتين[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

When I realized that Perón, contrary to previous governments, gave Jewish citizens access to public office, I began to change my way of thinking about Argentine politics...

Ezequiel Zabotinsky, president of the Jewish-Peronist Organizacion Israelita Argentina, 1952–1955 [5]

Juan Perón and José Ber Gelbard

Fraser and Navarro write that Juan Perón was a complicated man who over the years stood for many different, often contradictory, things.[6] In the book Inside Argentina from Perón to Menem author Laurence Levine, former president of the US-Argentine Chamber of Commerce, writes, "although anti-Semitism existed in Argentina, Perón's own views and his political associations were not anti-Semitic...." Laurence also writes that one of Perón's advisors was a Jewish man from Poland named José Ber Gelbard.[7] U.S. Ambassador George S. Messersmith visited Argentina in 1947 during the first term of Juan Perón. Messersmith noted, "There is not as much social discrimination against Jews here as there is right in نيويورك or in most places at home..."[8]

Golda Meir talks with Evita Perón on Meir's visit to Argentina, 1951

Perón sought out other Jewish Argentines as government advisers, besides Ber Gelbard. The powerful Secretary of Media, Raúl Apold, also Jewish, was (ironically) called "Perón´s Goebbels." He favoured the creation of institutions like New Zion (Nueva Sión), the Argentine-Jewish Institute of Culture and Information, presided by Simón Mirelman, and the Argentine-Israeli Chamber of Commerce. Also, he named Rabbi Amran Blum the first Jewish professor of philosophy in the National University of Buenos Aires. After being the first Latin American government to acknowledge the State of Israel, he sent a Jewish ambassador, Pablo Mangel to that country. Education and Diplomacy were the two strongholds of Catholic nationalism, and both appointments were highly symbolic. The same goes for the 1946 decision of allowing Jewish army privates to celebrate their holidays, which was aimed at fostering the Jewish position in another traditionally Catholic institution, the army. Argentina signed a generous commercial agreement with Israel that granted favourable terms for Israeli acquisitions of Argentine commodities, and also the Eva Perón Foundation sent significant humanitarian aid. Chaim Weizmann and Golda Meir expressed their gratitude during their visit to بوينس آيرس in 1951.

Evita and Juan Perón at the Plaza de Mayo, 1951. Raúl Apold is visible behind Perón.

The German Argentine community in Argentina is the third largest ethnic group in the country, after the Spanish Argentines and the Italian Argentines. The German Argentine community predates Juan Perón's presidency, going back as far as the time of the unification of Germany. Laurence Levine writes that Perón found German civilization too "rigid" and therefore had a "distaste" for it.[7] Crassweller writes that while Juan Perón's own personal preference was for Hispanic culture, with which he felt a spiritual affinity, Perón was "pragmatic" in dealing with the diverse populace of Argentina.[8]

While Juan Perón's Argentina allowed many Nazi criminals to take refuge in Argentina, Juan Perón's Argentina also accepted more Jewish immigrants than any other country in Latin America, which in part accounts for the fact that Argentina to this day has a population of over 200,000 Jewish citizens, the largest in Latin America, the third largest in the Americas, and the sixth largest in the world.[9][10][11][12] The Jewish Virtual Library writes that while Juan Perón had sympathized with the Axis powers, "Perón also expressed sympathy for Jewish rights and established diplomatic relations with Israel in 1949. Since then, more than 45,000 Jews have immigrated to Israel from Argentina." [13]

Tomás Eloy Martínez, professor of Latin American studies at Rutgers University, writes that Juan Perón allowed Nazi criminals into the country in hopes of acquiring advanced German technology developed during the war. Martínez also notes that Eva Perón played no part in allowing Nazis into the country.[14]


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الفترة الرئاسية الثانية لبـِرون[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

Perón and the ailing Evita during his second inaugural parade, June 1952. Eva died the following month.


ضريحه وعهده[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

Also see Hands of Perón.
Bust of Juan Perón in the city of Rosario.


الهوامش[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

  1. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة rock
  2. ^ "El proyecto Pulqui: propaganda peronista de la época". Lucheyvuelve.com.ar. Retrieved 2011-01-27.
  3. ^ "La aviación militar apunta a Córdoba como vector comercial del poder aéreo". Reconstruccion2005.com.ar. Retrieved 2011-01-27.
  4. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة crawley
  5. ^ "The Jews and Perón: Communal Politics and National Identity in Peronist Argentina, 1946–1955" by Lawrence D. Bell Page 10. Retrieved May 2, 2008
  6. ^ Fraser, Nicholas. Navarro, Marysa. Evita: The Real Life of Eva Perón. W.W. Norton & Company, New York, London. 1980, 1996.
  7. ^ أ ب Inside Argentina from Perón to Menem: 1950–2000 From an American Point of View by Laurence Levine, page 23 ISBN 0-9649247-7-3
  8. ^ أ ب خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة autogenerated2
  9. ^ "Continuing Efforts to Conceal Anti-Semitic Past." Valente, Marcela. Valente, Marcela. IPS-Inter Press Service. April 27, 2005.
  10. ^ The Jewish People Policy Planning Institute; Annual Assessment, 2007[dead link]
  11. ^ "United Jewish Communities; Global Jewish Populations". Ujc.org. 2009-03-30. Retrieved 2011-01-27.
  12. ^ [1][dead link]
  13. ^ Jewish Virtual Library. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vjw/Argentina.html#WW2
  14. ^ THE WOMAN BEHIND THE FANTASY: PROSTITUTE, FASCIST, PROFLIGATE - EVA PERÓN WAS MUCH MALIGNED, MOSTLY UNFAIRLY Tomás Eloy Martínez, Director of the Latin American program at Rutgers University

قراءات إضافية[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

انظر أيضا[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

وصلات خارجية[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

مناصب سياسية
سبقه
Edelmiro Farrell
نائب رئيس الأرجنتين
1944–1945
تبعه
Juan Pistarini
رئيس الأرجنتين
فترة أولى وثانية

1946–1955
تبعه
José Gómez
سبقه
Raúl Lastiri
رئيس الأرجنتين
الفترة الثالثة

1973–1974
تبعه
Isabel Perón

قالب:Maria Eva Duarte de Perón قالب:Juan Domingo Perón

تمّ الاسترجاع من "https://www.marefa.org/خوان_پـِرون"