إحصاء المملكة المتحدة

الوثيقة المستخدمة لإحصاء المنازل الإنگليزية أثناء تعداد 2001.

Coincident full census have taken place in the different jurisdictions of the المملكة المتحدة every ten years since 1801, with the exceptions of 1941 (during الحرب العالمية الثانية) and in both Northern Ireland and the Irish Free State in 1921. Simultaneous censuses were taken in the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man, with the returns being archived with those of إنگلترة. In addition to providing detailed information about national demographics, the results of the census play an important part in the calculation of resource allocation to regional and local service providers by the governments of both the UK and the European Union. The most recent UK census took place in 2011.[1]


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التاريخ

وفي سنة 1801 أجرت الحكومة أول إحصاء مبني على أسس علمية في بريطانيا العظمى (إنجلترا، وويلز، واسكتلندا) وأدى هذا إلى فزع المواطنين الذين استاؤوا من انتهاك خصوصياتهم كمقدمة لإخضاعهم لتنظيم صارم(5). وأظهرت نتيجة الإحصاء المسجلة أن عدد سكان بريطانيا العظمى في ذلك الوقت كان 646،249،01 (كان عدد سكان الولايات المتحدة في ذلك الوقت نحو 6,000,000) وبحلول عام 1811 كان عدد سكان بريطانيا العظمى قد ازداد ليصبح 441،255،21(6). وربما تعكس الزيادة زيادة كميات الطعام المتاحة وتحسن الخدمات الطبية وانخفاض نسبة الوفيات بين كبار السن والأطفال. لقد زاد سكان لندن في سنة 1811 ليصبح 1,009,546 لكن التوسع الأكثر أهمية والأكثر ضخامة كان في الشمال والغرب الصناعيين، وفي سنة 1181 كان عدد السكان العاملين في مجالي الزراعة والرعي هو: 895,998 على وفق ما هو وارد في السجلات بينما كان العاملون في مجالي الصناعة والتجاربة 1,128,049 وفي أعمال أخرى 519,168.(7) لقد ضيّقت الحكومة على الزراعة بإقرارها نظام الحظائر المسيجة (التي ترعى فيها الأغنام...) وشجعت الصناعة بالعمل لصالح المشروعات الخاصة (الحرة) وبالحماية الجمركية وبمنع اتحادات العمال من المطالبة بأجور أفضل (1800)، كما عملت على تحسين أحوال التجارة بتحسين الطرق والمجاري المائية، وبتشييد أسطول بحري بريطاني لا يُقهر. لقد حقق التجار والصناع والماليون ثروات كبيرة وفاز بعضهم بمقاعد في البرلمان أو اشتروها (حصلوا عليها لقاء مال دفعوه).


قائمة تعدادات المملكة المتحدة

السنة التاريخ ملاحظات الأسئلة الجديدة
1801 10 March Details collected were mainly head-counts, with few records still existing.
1811 27 May
1821 28 May
1831 30 May
1841 6 June Name. Age (for those over 15, this was supposed to be rounded down to the nearest 5 years, though this instruction was not obeyed in all cases). Occupation. Whether born "in county" (i. e. the same as where currently living), elsewhere in the UK, or in "Foreign Parts".
1851 30 March Relation to head of the household. Marital status. Place of birth. Whether blind, deaf or dumb. Language spoken (Ireland). Rounding down of ages dropped.
1861 7 April Economic status.[2]
1871 2 April Whether an imbecile, idiot or lunatic[3] (note that such usage of terms predates euphemistic definitions; see euphemism treadmill).
1881 3 April Language spoken (in Scotland).
1891 5 April Language spoken (in Wales).[2] Whether an employer, an employee, or neither. Number of rooms occupied, if fewer than 5.[4]
1901 31 March Number of rooms in dwelling.[2] Whether an employer, worker or working on one's own account. Whether working at home or not. Language spoken (in Wales – children under 3 years of age excluded).[5]
1911 2 April Industry or service with which the worker is connected.[2] How long the couple has been married. How many children were born alive, how many who are still alive, and how many who have died. "Nationality of any Person born in a Foreign Country". The final column, which had been "Deaf and Dumb, Blind, Lunatic, Imbecile, Feeble-minded", becomes "INFIRMITY :Totally Deaf and Dumb, Totally Blind, Lunatic, Imbecile, Feeble-minded".
1921 19 June Place of work and industry[2] Whether a marriage has been dissolved by divorce.[6]
1931 26 April England and Wales – destroyed in 1942 fire; Northern Ireland – no census. Place of usual residence[2]
1939 29 September National Registration Act 1939.[7] No census in 1941 due to the Second World War.
1951 8 April Household amenities.[2]
1961 23 April Qualifications, migration, household tenure.[2]
1966 24 April Long-form/short-form census, trialling an alternative method of enumeration. Car ownership, method of travel to work.[2]
1971 25 April
1981 5 April
1991 21 April Ethnic group, long-term limiting illness, central heating, term-time address of students.[8]
2001 29 April Size of workforce, supervisor status, first question on religion on the main census form (England, Wales, and Scotland).[2]
2011 27 March An option to complete the form online.[9] Also provided English, Northern Irish, Scottish, Welsh and British national identity option following criticism that English and Welsh were absent from 2001.[10][11][12][13] Includes questions relevant to civil partnerships. Other new questions involve asking migrants their date of arrival and how long they intend to stay in the UK; respondents also required to disclose which passports they held.[14] A rehearsal census was conducted on 11 October 2009.[15]

انظر أيضاً

الهامش

  1. ^ "2011 Census". Office for National Statistics. 2011. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
  2. ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح خ د ذ ر Graham Vidler. The 2001 Census of Population. Research Paper 01/21. House of Commons Library. ISSN 1368-8456
  3. ^ Census - ScotlandsPeople
  4. ^ Image of 1891 census from Ancestry.co.uk requires trial membership
  5. ^ Image of 1901 census from Ancestry.co.uk (requires trial membership).
  6. ^ "1921 Census". Retrieved 16 March 2013..
  7. ^ National Registration Act, 1939. Rootsweb.com. URL accessed 1 March 2008.
  8. ^ Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, General Register Office for Scotland (1992). 1991 Census Definitions Great Britain. London: HMSO. ISBN 0-11-691361-4.
  9. ^ Traditional census 'is obsolete'. The Guardian. June 5, 2008
  10. ^ 2011 England & Wales census questionnaire content / recommended questions - national identity
  11. ^ English tick box, No 10 e-petition response
  12. ^ 2011 Census tick-box for 'English' national identity
  13. ^ 2011 census form to include Welsh tick-box. WalesOnline. December 12, 2008
  14. ^ Next census aims to map migrant populations. The Independent. December 11, 2008.
  15. ^ 2009 rehearsal questionnaire. ONS. Retrieved 16 March 2013.


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وصلات خارجية