شيلي - Chellean

هذه صفحة مكتوبة بالعربية البسيطة، انظر الصفحة الأصلية
بعض من الآلات المستخدمة في العصر الشيلي وكما تبدو شكلت على هيئة مدية حجرية
Abbevillian biface flake from the Douro river region near Valladolid, Spain. It is unretouched and is not distinguishable from Olduwan. The one small spot of smaller flaking on one edge may indicate that it is borderline between Olduwan and Acheulean. Both are found in Europe.

الحضارة الأبفيلية (Abbevillian) هي حضارة من العصر الحجري القديم . ترجع الي مدينة أبفيل في شمال فرنسا. وقد عرفت بالحضارة الشيلية Chellean نسبة لمدينة شيل. وقد خلفت أدوات حجرية تركها الصيادون الذين عاشوا هناك . واستخدمت الفؤوس اليدوية . وكان رأسها علي هيئة كمثرية مدببة الطرف.


العهد الشيلي يقع تاريخه حول سنة 000ر100 ق.م وظهرت فيها المدية الحجرية وكانت هي أول آلة إستخدمت في عصر ما قبل الشيلي ، وقد تحسنت فيها الآلة بإرهاف جانبيها إرهافاً على شيء من الغلظة وبتدبيبها بحيث تتخذ شكل اللوزة ، ثم بتهيئتها تهيئة تكون أصلح لقبضة اليد البشرية.

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Early hominins of Europe[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

الموقع الأسماء ملاحظات روابط
Arago Cave near the village of Tautavel in the Languedoc-Roussillon district of France. Arago Man;
Tautavel Man;
Homo erectus tautavelensis;
Archaic Homo sapiens;
Homo heidelbergensis;
Arago n, where n is a catalog number assigned to the bone.
A community of about 100 individuals discovered over the years in the ongoing excavations of the cave by a team of the Centre Européen de Recherches Préhistoriques de Tautavil under the direction of Henry de Lumley. Excavations began in 1964, the first mandible came to light in 1969, and the first "Tautavil Man" in 1971, though in fact many subsequent Tautavil men and women appeared. The date range is a fairly secure 690,000-300,000 ya by many methods. The prevailing view is that the fossils are intermediary to the Neanderthals. Tools were found as well. Prehistoric Man, Active x site with sound and animation.
The Tautavel Man
Nature, various articles and abstracts.
A New Look at the Human Past
Barnfield Pit near Swanscombe in Kent, England Swanscombe Man (female);
Homo sapiens;
Homo swanscombensis;
Homo heidelbergensis;
Homo erectus;
Archaic Homo sapiens;
Acheulean Man
Portions of a skull excavated from a gravel pit by Alvin T. Marston in 1935-36 along with handaxes and animal bones. Two more pieces and some charcoal were found in 1955 by John Wymer. Estimated date 250,000 ya. Swanscombe
Barnfield Pit
Clactonian
Swanscombe
EARLY PREHISTORIC PEOPLES IN THE DARTFORD AREA
Prehistoric Dartford
Boxgrove, outside Chichester, Great Britain. Homo heidelbergensis Shin bone & two teeth found in 1994, 1996 in a quarry, with butchered animal bones & handaxes, ca. 500,000 ya. Boxgrove
Homo antecessor
Boxgrove
Boxgrove Home Page
Mauer near Heidelberg, Germany Homo Heidelbergensis;
Heidelberg Man;
Mauer Jaw
Lower jaw & tooth discovered 1907 in a gravel pit. Dated to 600,000-250,000 ya. Homo heidelbergensis
Homo antecessor
Mauer 1
Archaic Homo sapiens
Heidelberg Man
Homo heidelbergensis
Petralona in Chalcidice, Greece. Homo heidelbergensis;
Homo neanderthalensis;
Archanthropus mausoleum;
Archanthropus europaeus petralonsiensis;
Homo erectus petralonensis;
Petralona 1.
Skull found in a cave with animal bones, stone tools and evidence of fire in 1960. Studied by Aris Poulianos, given various dates, ESR date range is 240,000-160,000. Aris Poulianos
Spilaio Archantropon Petralona
Petralona Cave
Petralona 1
ESR-dating of the fossil hominid cranium from Petralona...
Petralona
PETRALONA PROVIDES Α NEW DATING...
Sima de los huesos, "pit of bones", a chimney site in a cave, one of many fossil hominin sites in the hills of Atapuerca, Castile-Leon, Spain Homo heidelbergensis About 4000 hominin bones from which about 30 individuals have been reconstructed since the mid-1970's. Bones of carnivores are mixed in. A handaxe was found in 1998. Date is 500,000-350,000 ya. Atapuerca
The First Europeans
Infants, cannibals, and the pit of bones
Disaster may have killed ancients
Steinheim an der Murr, north of Stuttgart, Germany. Homo heidelbergensis;
Homo steinheimensis;
Steinheim Man;
Archaic Homo sapiens;
Homo sapiens praesapius.
Skull found in 1933 by Karl Sigrist, currently dated to about 250,000 ya. Steinheim an der Murr
Steinheim Skull
Lower Palaeolithic
Steinheim
Vértesszöllöss,
Vértesszölöss,
near Budapest
Homo erectus paleohungaricus;
Homo sapiens paleohungaricus;
Vértesszöllöss Man;
Samuel;
Samu
Occipital bone and a few teeth excavated 1964-65 in a quarry by Laszlo Vertes. The site was in the open and used for butchery. Human fossils were with a hearth, dwelling, tools, footprints, plant and animal fossils. Vértesszőlős
Vértesszőlős prehistoric man colony


المصادر[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

ول ديورانت. قصة الحضارة. ترجمة بقيادة زكي نجيب محمود. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)


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