أبو الخير خان - Abul Khair Khan

هذه صفحة مكتوبة بالعربية البسيطة، انظر الصفحة الأصلية
طابع بريد قزخستاني لأبو الخير خان، 2001، (ميشل 316).

أبو الخير خان (قزخية: Әбілқайыр хан, Ábilqaıyr han؛ بالإنغليزية: Abul Khair Khan) (و. 1693 - ت. 12 أغسطس 1748)، كان قائد لجوز قزخي صغير (تقسيم اداري) يقع حالياً في غرب قزخستان. خلال تلك الفترة، في أعقاب "الكارثة الكبرى" التي حاقت بهم جراء غزو الأراضي القزخية.

وهو شخصية تاريخية معقدة، يشتهر بقدرته على تنظيم الهجوم والفوز بإلخانات، الشجاعة والغرور، الذكاء والشغف. في سبتمبر 1720، نشبت معركة دامية بين الجيش القزخي والقزخ الروس على نهر سامارا. حصل عتمان نيكيتا بورودين على شهادة تقدير من الملك الروسي بطرس الثاني من أجل "إلتزامه البطولي" بقتل 50 قزخي من الأسرى.

عام 1721، قامت مجموعة من القوزاق والكالميك، بقيادة عتمان بالماشوف، بالهجوم على نهر النفط، وأخذوا الكثير من الأسرى. في يناير 1722، هاجم 300 جندي قزخي معسكرا الشتاء الروسي-القزخي بالقرب من شاغان، حيث أُخذ 70 قزخي في المقابل. في فبراير، ترك القزخ والروس أحصنتهم بالقرب من الأورال، وغادروا سيراً على الأقدام.

أثناء غزو الدزونغار، أختير أبو الخير قائد للجيش القزخي وأبدى مهارات كقائد محنك. وبفضل ذلك، نال سمعة طيبة بين الناس. وفي 1729/30، بعد وفاة الخان الأكبر بولات خان، ابن تاوكى خان، فإن المرشحـَيْن الرئيسيَين للخلافة على العرش كانا سامكه خان، الذي اشتهر في الصراع ضد الدزونغار و ابن بولات خان أبو الممبت خان. إلا أنه في مناورة مريبة من أبو الخير قام بدعم الابن قليل الحظ أبو الممبت بن بولات خان. وبالرغم من أن قادة الجوزات الثلاث اختاروا أبا الخير كخليفة للخان، فلم يُمنح اللقب لأنه لم ينل دعم القضاة.

دعم الخان اللاحق أبلاي خان، أبو المنصور ودوره كخان. وفي المقابل، وضع السلطان أبو المنصور، أبا الخير خان في موضع الاهتمام .

تحت قيادته هزم الغزاة القزخ قوات الدزونغار عند نهر بولانتي عام 1726 وفي معركة أنراكاي عام 1729.

ومن أجل الحصول على المساعدة الروسية ضد الدزونغار، أقسم أبو الخير خان بالولاء للتاج الروسي في عام 1731.[1] حاول بعد ذلك الحد والسيطرة على النفوذ الروسي الذي يمارس على الجوز القزخية الصغيرة. وفقاً لدراسة أجريت عام 2019، "لم يفكر القزخ أو المسؤولون الروس في علاقتهم كشكل من أشكال الضم".[1]

الحفيدة السادسة عشر لأبي الخير تعيش حالياً في أوروبا. وليس لها أي مطالبات ملكية.

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سيرته[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

وُلد أبو الخير خان في تركستان عام 1693. كان من الجيل الخامس لجاني-بك. وكان أيضاً حفيد جنكيز خان، حيث كان من الجيل الخامس لأسرة خان. أنجب جاني-بك تسعة أولاد، أحدهما هو أوكسك سلطان، ونويان، وإيرس سلطان، وسلطان هوجا، وعبد الله سلطان، وكان أبو الخير ابناً لعبد الله سلطان. ومن ناحية الأم، كان أبو الخير خان حفيداً لأسكن (جدته الكبرى)، والتي كانت ابناً لإحدى الأقليات القزخية المسماة بولتاني، زعيم القزخ في معرفلة وقعت بالقرب من إيتيسبس، من أحفاز سلاطين القزخ. بعد وفاته، قال بولات خان، "The khanate of Abulkhair's father did not originate from the beginning. وقال أيضاً أنه من الجيل الأصغر من أقاربي، وأن والده كان سابع الملوك، الخليفة الشرعي لعرش خان.[2]

عام 1710، في مراسم فلكلورية في قرة‌قوم، انتخب أبو الخير الشاب قائداً لجيش الجون وانتخب خاناً، وترشح الشاب بوغان‌باي باتير الشهير كتايوين.

كان القرن الثامن عشر نقطة تحول في تاريخ الشعب القزخي، وتسبب هجمات الدزونغار في جعل الشعب أكثر إحباطاً. استسلم أبو الخير لهذه الحرب المريعة. أظهر أبو الخير شجاعة واضحة ف يحماية مدينة سايرام،تركستان وطشقند، حيث كان راعياً لأسلافه. عندما استسلمت هذه البلدات للدزونغار، أُجبر أبو الخير خان على التراجع بعدما تم أسر زوجته ووالدته في معركة غير متكافئة. عام 1718 خرج أبو الخير خان و30 ألف مقاتل لخوض معركة دموية مع الدزونغار. لكن في هذه المعركة، هُزم القزخ بسبب الخلاف بين أبو الخير وقايب.

عاش أبو الخير في مدينة تركستان حتى عام 1723، بعدها قام الغزاة الدزونغار بطرد القبائل من خانية بخارى وخيفا.

Abulkhair was a brave warrior and a skillful commander. In 1726 , when the Kazakhs of the three hundred Kazakhs met, dances and heroes unanimously elected Abulkhair as the Commander-in-Chief of the Kazakh Khanate . And in 1736 , the English artist John Kastle, who came to Horde how Abylkhair reached the khanate level , summarizes:He is a great person, a handsome, handsome person with a beautiful face, with a beautiful face, and a great man of good health and courage. Until he was a khan, he was a sultan, and all his children were holding this post. After the war with the Dzungar Kalmyk, their leader was arrested by his own captive ... The Little Orda chose him.

His army captain Abulkhair occupied great positions in the people's squadron, raised his fighting ability, and rewarded moral spirit and patriotism in the armed forces. In 1728 the Kazakh army won. These battles were found in the Ulytau Mountains , on the land of Karachi and Bulanty River, where the Kazakhs destroyed the expeditional corps, which led the great men of the Kazakhs. It is hoped that after the victory, the people will be able to win the victory. The people were aggressive against the invaders.

However, the enemy was still strong after this defeat. Abilkair, a vigorous adventure, started a new attack. In spring 1730 in the village of Itshpez , in the south-east of Balkhash , Kazakh troops, led by Abulkhair, defeated the enemy again. In the hundred years of the war against the Dzhungar people, the Kazakh people moved to a new stage, and the victory was nearer to victory. [2]

At the same time, however, Bulat Khan was killed. Therefore, a question arises about the appointment of another khan. Due to the domination of Tauke Khan , he elects Abulkhair Khan and Sameke Khan , who will be deprived of power and elect the young son of Bulat Khan , Abulmambet Khan . After the death of Bulat Khan, Abulkhair Khan and Sameke Khan, the main supporters of the Kazakh troops, who believed in "and with his armies he goes to his place. After that the united Kazakh people began to break down and 1 part of the Dzhungar army survived. Knowing that Dzungarians still threatened him, Abulkhair Khan began to look for his allies. So he sends an envoy to the Russian Empire and proposes to be an ally. His goal was to support the Kazakh people with the help of the Russians, and to fight against the foreign enemies of the Volga Peninsula, the Bashkirs and the Dzungars. But Russia rejects this proposal and only agrees with the protectorate. Abulkhair khan will have to give his consent. In the autumn of 1731, the Russian ambassadors led by Tevkelev took the oath of Abulkhair and the younger generals of the Little Junction and the Middle Ages. Abelkhair, who has come to terms with the Russian policy of the past, will face them a few times. However,

Field governors of the Russian Federation, who have been exhortating the Kazakhs to take steps to weaken the Kazakhs and get the keys to the Gateway to the Middle East, are eager to take advantage of this isolation. Herewith, the ancient method of colonization - "laundering of the closet wolf". Thus, they were driven by the Volga Peninsula, Bashkirs, and the Ural Cossacks, and the Little Junior Kazakhs began to calm down. At the end of 1730, Abulkhair asked for himself to be subordinated to the Russian Empire and sent his ambassador to St. Petersburg. There, he says, that he is paying a fee like the heads of the Russian Empire, as well as demanding that there be no abuses and attacks on the part of the Russians, unless the king is banned, that the Bashkirs will not stop the attacks on themselves. In addition, the Russian captives return the Kazakh prisoners, and the Kazakhs themselves will return their captives. But this divination does not work like Abulkhair thought. Then he will be burying a man from the town of Dzhungar Khan, Kaldan Seren. He asks for help, and he welcomes it. He fully illustrates Abul Khair's desires in the decree issued by Ablai, who was released from the Dzhungar captive. The friendly relations tell that Abulkhair will send his son to Dzungaria with thousands of Kazakhs and send his son to Kazakhs with a thousand thoughts in return. However, his hope that Abulkhair would come out of the city with Seren Seren and rely on him to succeed him. In September 1745, Kaldan Seren died. In addition, the Russian captives return the Kazakh prisoners, and the Kazakhs themselves will return their captives. But this divination does not work like Abulkhair thought. Then he will be burying a man from the town of Dzhungar Khan, Kaldan Seren. He asks for help, and he welcomes it. He fully illustrates Abul Khair's desires in the decree issued by Ablai, who was released from the Dzhungar captive. The friendly relations tell that Abulkhair will send his son to Dzungaria with thousands of Kazakhs and send his son to Kazakhs with a thousand thoughts in return. However, his hope that Abulkhair would come out of the city with Seren Seren and rely on him to succeed him. In September 1745, Kaldan Seren died. In addition, the Russian captives return the Kazakh prisoners, and the Kazakhs themselves will return their captives. But this divination does not work like Abulkhair thought. Then he will be burying a man from the town of Dzhungar Khan, Kaldan Seren. He asks for help, and he welcomes it. He fully illustrates Abul Khair's desires in the decree issued by Ablai, who was released from the Dzhungar captive. The friendly relations tell that Abulkhair will send his son to Dzungaria with thousands of Kazakhs and send his son to Kazakhs with a thousand thoughts in return. However, his hope that Abulkhair would come out of the city with Seren Seren and rely on him to succeed him. In September 1745, Kaldan Seren died. Kazakhs, on the other hand, mean that they will return their captives. But this divination does not work like Abulkhair thought. Then he will be burying a man from the town of Dzhungar Khan, Kaldan Seren. He asks for help, and he welcomes it. He fully illustrates Abul Khair's desires in the decree issued by Ablai, who was released from the Dzhungar captive. The friendly relations tell that Abulkhair will send his son to Dzungaria with thousands of Kazakhs and send his son to Kazakhs with a thousand thoughts in return. However, his hope that Abulkhair would come out of the city with Seren Seren and rely on him to succeed him. In September 1745, Kaldan Seren died. Kazakhs, on the other hand, mean that they will return their captives. But this divination does not work like Abulkhair thought. Then he will be burying a man from the town of Dzhungar Khan, Kaldan Seren. He asks for help, and he welcomes it. He fully illustrates Abul Khair's desires in the decree issued by Ablai, who was released from the Dzhungar captive. The friendly relations tell that Abulkhair will send his son to Dzungaria with thousands of Kazakhs and send his son to Kazakhs with a thousand thoughts in return. However, his hope that Abulkhair would come out of the city with Seren Seren and rely on him to succeed him. In September 1745, Kaldan Seren died. Then he will be burying a man from the town of Dzhungar Khan, Kaldan Seren. He asks for help, and he welcomes it. He fully illustrates Abul Khair's desires in the decree issued by Ablai, who was released from the Dzhungar captive. The friendly relations tell that Abulkhair will send his son to Dzungaria with thousands of Kazakhs and send his son to Kazakhs with a thousand thoughts in return. However, his hope that Abulkhair would come out of the city with Seren Seren and rely on him to succeed him. In September 1745, Kaldan Seren died. Then he will be burying a man from the town of Dzhungar Khan, Kaldan Seren. He asks for help, and he welcomes it. He fully illustrates Abul Khair's desires in the decree issued by Ablai, who was released from the Dzhungar captive. The friendly relations tell that Abulkhair will send his son to Dzungaria with thousands of Kazakhs and send his son to Kazakhs with a thousand thoughts in return. However, his hope that Abulkhair would come out of the city with Seren Seren and rely on him to succeed him. In September 1745, Kaldan Seren died. The friendly relations tell that Abulkhair will send his son to Dzungaria with thousands of Kazakhs and send his son to Kazakhs with a thousand thoughts in return. However, his hope that Abulkhair would come out of the city with Seren Seren and rely on him to succeed him. In September 1745, Kaldan Seren died. The friendly relations tell that Abulkhair will send his son to Dzungaria with thousands of Kazakhs and send his son to Kazakhs with a thousand thoughts in return. However, his hope that Abulkhair would come out of the city with Seren Seren and rely on him. In September 1745, Kaldan Seren died.

One of his rivals on the way back from Orenburg in 1748 was smashed by the barrack sultan. Barak Sultan is a person who gained great authority during the Junggar invasion. Abulkhair was reluctant to speak out against the intensification of Russia's support. When he learned that Abulkhair was approaching about 50 people, he made a trap, thinking about using it. The khan's security guards see him as the dominant power of his opponents. However, Abulkhair Khan died in this battle.


السياسة الخارجية[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

تمثال أبو الخير خان، في آق طوبه.

أقام أبو الخير خان علاقات دبلوماسية مع روسيا والشاه الفارسي، وخانية الدزونغار. في 10 أكتوبر (21) 1731، بسبب وهن خانية القزخ أثناء حربها المنهـِكة مع الدزونغار، أقسم أبو الخير خان ومعظم كبراء الجوز الأصغر قسم الولاء للامبراطورية الروسية، واضعاً بذلك أساس ضم قزخستان إلى روسيا.[3]

في نهاية القرن السادس عشر، كانت خانية القزخ مقسمة إلى ثلاث zhuzes (associations): the Younger (Western Kazakhstan), the Middle (Central) and the Elder (Semirechye). On the territory of each zhuz independent khanates were formed, between which civil wars were often waged. By the turn of the XVII — XVIII centuries. Due to the growth of feudal strife, raids of the Dzungars - the Mongol tribes that inhabited the area between the Tien Shan and Altai - the cities in the south of Kazakhstan fell into decay, which hit the Kazakh economy as a whole.

In 1726, Khan Abulkhair, on behalf of the elders of the Younger Zhuz, turned to the imperial government with a request for citizenship. This zhuz was located on the border with the Russian Empire, its trade and political ties with Russia were the most stable. However, the embassy remained inconclusive; without abandoning his intentions, in September 1730, Abulkhair again sent the embassy through Ufa to Petersburg with a letter to the Russian Empress Anna Ioannovna and an oral request for citizenship and patronage. On September 8 (19), 1730, the messengers of the Younger Zhuz were received by the Empress. Their request for the inclusion of the Younger Zhuz in the Russian Empire was granted by decree of February 19 (March 2), 1731. Ambassadors headed by the translator of the Foreign Affairs Commission A. I. Tevkelev were sent to Kazakhstan with a letter to Khan Abulkhair to take the oath.

On October 10, 1731, a significant part of the meeting of Kazakh elders supported the adoption of an act on the voluntary accession of the Younger Zhuz to Russia. https://www.prlib.ru/history/619652

وفاته ودفنه[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

Abulhair fought for the supreme throne of the three zhuzs until the death of Tauke Khan in 1715 , and after his death. He supported Abylay Khan, who became famous throughout Central Asia. However, the glory and independence of Abulkhair caused friction with other Kazakh sultans. One of his rivals, the authoritative Sultan of the Middle Zhuz, Sultan Barak masterfully used weaknesses, namely Abulkhayir's youngest beloved wife [16] .

The positions of two large figures of the XVIII century - Khan Abulkhair and Sultan Barak crossed, due to the fact that the youngest beloved wife of Abulkhair fell in love with the handsome Barak. This became the basis for personal hostility and rivalry, which led to a tragic denouement.

In early August 1748, Abulkhair Khan was returning from the wedding with his companions on the way back from the Orsk fortress , and met with the Sultan, who attacked a lonely caravan. Abulkhair khan could not leave the battlefield, although the companions and the bodyguard of the khan requested not to intervene, explaining that there were more people at the Barak Sultan, to which Abulkhair khan replied: “the khan is not good to run away”, and accepted the battle. During the battle with the outnumbering enemy, Abulkhair Khan was killed by Barak .

The tomb of Abulkhaira is located at the confluence of the Kabyrga River in Olkeyek, which is 80 km from Turgay in the Aktobe region . Currently, the place is called "Khan Molasy" (Khan's grave). The Acting Director General of the Institute of General Genetics and Cytology of the Science Committee of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Leyla Dzhansugurova, at a conference on September 16, 2011, reported the discovery of remains that are very likely to “represent a direct relative of the khan on the male side, or Abulkhair Khan himself”.

Abulhair grave Wall Ölkeyekke of the river near the inlet, Turgay 80 kilometers from the city. Later, this place was called the "Khan Tomb"

العائلة[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

  • الأب - آي طاق حاجي سلطان
  • الأم -
  • الزوجات - بوباي هانم، بيان هانم
  • ابن - نور علي خان، خان الجوز الأصغر (1748-1786).
  • أحفاد من نور علي خان:
    • يسيم خان، خان الجوز الأصغر (1796-1797).
    • قرة طاي خان، خان الجوز الأصغر (1806-1816).
    • بوكاي خان، حاكم القبيل الداخلي (1800-1812), خان القبيل الداخلي (1812-1815).
    • شيغاي خان، حاكم القبيل الداخلي (1815-1823).
    • جانغير خان، حاكم القبيل الداخلي (1823-1845). ابن بوكاي خان، حفيد نور علي خان.
    • عبيد الله تشنغيز خان (6 مايو 1840 - 28 فبراير 1909) - قائد عسكري للجيش الروسي، وابن خان of the Bukeevsky horde Zhangir، حفيد بوكاي خان. شارك في الحرب التركية الروسية 1877-1878. مؤسس قوات الاتصالات الروسية. قائد سلاح الفرسان.
  • ابن - جار محمبت خان، خان الجوز الأصغر (1786-1791).
  • ابن - ير علي خان، خان الجوز الأصغر (1791-1794)
  • ابن - آيشواق خان، خان الجوز الأصغر (1797-1806).
  • ابنة - قرة شاش هانم أصبحت إحدى زوجات أبولاي خان [18] .
  • ابنة - نامورون هانم.
  • ابنة - زليخة هانم.

وقد زوّج ابنته الكبرى، من زوجته الأولى، لسلطان الجوز الأصغر - جاني‌بك؛ وابنة أخرى للسلطان أبولاي Abylay.


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انظر أيضاً[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

المصادر[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

  1. ^ أ ب Afinogenov, Gregory (2019-09-03). "Languages of Hegemony on the Eighteenth-Century Kazakh Steppe". The International History Review. 41 (5): 1020–1038. doi:10.1080/07075332.2018.1475403. ISSN 0707-5332.
  2. ^ "Әбілқайыр хан (Кіші жүз)". ويكيبيديا القزخية.
  3. ^ "Абулхайр-хан_(Младший_жуз)". ويكيبيديا الروسية.

المراجع[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

تمّ الاسترجاع من "https://www.marefa.org/أبو_الخير_خان"