آن دنهام - Ann Dunham

هذه صفحة مكتوبة بالعربية البسيطة، انظر الصفحة الأصلية
Ann Dunham
Stanley Ann Dunham 1960 Mercer Island High School yearbook.jpg
وُلـِدStanley Ann Dunham
(1942-11-29)نوفمبر 29, 1942
Wichita, Kansas, U.S.
توفينوفمبر 7, 1995(1995-11-07) (عن عمر 52 عاماً)
Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.
التعليمUniversity of Hawaii, Manoa (BA, MA, PhD)
University of Washington
الزوجBarack Obama Sr. (ز. 1961; ط. 1964)
Lolo Soetoro (ز. 1965; ط. 1980)
الأنجالBarack Obama
Maya Soetoro-Ng
الوالدانStanley Armour Dunham
Madelyn Dunham
الأقاربCharles T. Payne (Uncle)
Jon V. Payne (Uncle)

Stanley Ann Dunham (November 29, 1942 – November 7, 1995) was an American anthropologist who specialized in the economic anthropology and rural development of Indonesia.[1] She was the mother of Barack Obama, the 44th President of the United States. Dunham was known as Stanley Ann Dunham through high school, then as Ann Dunham, Ann Obama, Ann Soetoro, Ann Sutoro and finally after her second divorce as Ann Dunham.[2]

Born in Wichita, Kansas, Dunham studied at the East–West Center and at the University of Hawaii at Manoa in Honolulu, where she attained a bachelor of arts degree in anthropology (1967),[3] and later received master of arts (1974) and PhD (1992) degrees, also in anthropology.[4] She also attended University of Washington at Seattle in 1961–1962. Interested in craftsmanship, weaving, and the role of women in cottage industries, Dunham's research focused on women's work on the island of Java and blacksmithing in Indonesia. To address the problem of poverty in rural villages, she created microcredit programs while working as a consultant for the United States Agency for International Development. Dunham was also employed by the Ford Foundation in Jakarta and she consulted with the Asian Development Bank in Gujranwala, Pakistan. Towards the latter part of her life, she worked with Bank Rakyat Indonesia, where she helped apply her research to the largest microfinance program in the world.[4]

After her son was elected President, interest renewed in Dunham's work: the University of Hawaii held a symposium about her research; an exhibition of Dunham's Indonesian batik textile collection toured the United States; and in December 2009, Duke University Press published Surviving against the Odds: Village Industry in Indonesia, a book based on Dunham's original 1992 dissertation. Janny Scott, an author and former New York Times reporter, published a biography about Ann Dunham's life titled A Singular Woman in 2011. Posthumous interest has also led to the creation of The Ann Dunham Soetoro Endowment in the Anthropology Department at the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, as well as the Ann Dunham Soetoro Graduate Fellowships, intended to fund students associated with the East–West Center (EWC) in Honolulu, Hawaii.[5]

In an interview, Barack Obama referred to his mother as "the dominant figure in my formative years ... The values she taught me continue to be my touchstone when it comes to how I go about the world of politics."[6]


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Professional life[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

From January 1968 to December 1969, Dunham taught English and was an assistant director of the Lembaga Persahabatan Indonesia Amerika (LIA)–the Indonesia-America Friendship Institute at 9 Teuku Umar Street in the Gondangdia administrative village of the Menteng subdistrict in Central Jakarta–which was subsidized by the United States government.[7] From January 1970 to August 1972, Dunham taught English and was a department head and a director of the Lembaga Pendidikan dan Pengembangan Manajemen (LPPM)–the Institute of Management Education and Development at 9 Menteng Raya Street in the Kebon Sirih administrative village of the Menteng subdistrict in Central Jakarta.[7]

From 1968 to 1972, Dunham was a co-founder and active member of the Ganesha Volunteers (Indonesian Heritage Society) at the National Museum in Jakarta.[7][8] From 1972 to 1975, Dunham was crafts instructor (in weaving, batik, and dye) at the Bishop Museum in Honolulu.[7]

Dunham then had a career in rural development, championing women's work and microcredit for the world's poor and worked with leaders from organizations supporting Indonesian human rights, women's rights, and grass-roots development.[9]

In March 1977, Dunham, under the supervision of agricultural economics professor Leon A. Mears, developed and taught a short lecture course at the Faculty of Economics of the University of Indonesia (FEUI) in Jakarta for staff members of BAPPENAS (Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional)—the Indonesian National Development Planning Agency.[7]

From June 1977 through September 1978, Dunham carried out research on village industries in the Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY)—the Yogyakarta Special Region within Central Java in Indonesia under a student grant from the East–West Center.[10] As a weaver herself, Dunham was interested in village industries, and moved to Yogyakarta City, the center of Javanese handicrafts.[11][12]

In May and June 1978, Dunham was a short-term consultant in the office of the International Labour Organization (ILO) in Jakarta, writing recommendations on village industries and other non-agricultural enterprises for the Indonesian government's third five-year development plan (REPELITA III).[7][10]

From October 1978 to December 1980, Dunham was a rural industries consultant in Central Java on the Indonesian Ministry of Industry's Provincial Development Program (PDP I), funded by USAID in Jakarta and implemented through Development Alternatives, Inc. (DAI).[7][10]

From January 1981 to November 1984, Dunham was the program officer for women and employment in the Ford Foundation's Southeast Asia regional office in Jakarta.[7][10] While at the Ford Foundation, she developed a model of microfinance which is now the standard in Indonesia, a country that is a world leader in micro-credit systems.[13] Peter Geithner, father of Tim Geithner (who later became U.S. Secretary of the Treasury in her son's administration), was head of the foundation's Asia grant-making at that time.[14]

From May to November 1986 and from August to November 1987, Dunham was a cottage industries development consultant for the Agricultural Development Bank of Pakistan (ADBP) under the Gujranwala Integrated Rural Development Project (GADP).[7][10] The credit component of the project was implemented in the Gujranwala district of the Punjab province of Pakistan with funding from the Asian Development Bank and IFAD, with the credit component implemented through Louis Berger International, Inc.[7][10] Dunham worked closely with the Lahore office of the Punjab Small Industries Corporation (PSIC).[7][10]

From January 1988 to 1995, Dunham was a consultant and research coordinator for Indonesia's oldest bank, Bank Rakyat Indonesia (BRI) in Jakarta, with her work funded by USAID and the World Bank.[7][10] In March 1993, Dunham was a research and policy coordinator for Women's World Banking (WWB) in New York.[7] She helped WWB manage the Expert Group Meeting on Women and Finance in New York in January 1994, and helped the WWB take prominent roles in the UN's Fourth World Conference on Women held September 4–15, 1995 in Beijing, and in the UN regional conferences and NGO forums that preceded it.[7]

On August 9, 1992, she was awarded PhD in anthropology from the University of Hawaii, under the supervision of Prof. Alice G. Dewey, with a 1,043-page dissertation[15] titled Peasant blacksmithing in Indonesia: surviving and thriving against all odds.[16] Anthropologist Michael Dove described the dissertation as "a classic, in-depth, on-the-ground anthropological study of a 1,200-year-old industry".[17] According to Dove, Dunham's dissertation challenged popular perceptions regarding economically and politically marginalized groups, and countered the notions that the roots of poverty lie with the poor themselves and that cultural differences are responsible for the gap between less-developed countries and the industrialized West.[17] According to Dove, Dunham

found that the villagers she studied in Central Java had many of the same economic needs, beliefs and aspirations as the most capitalist of Westerners. Village craftsmen were "keenly interested in profits", she wrote, and entrepreneurship was "in plentiful supply in rural Indonesia", having been "part of the traditional culture" there for a millennium.

Based on these observations, Dr. Soetoro concluded that underdevelopment in these communities resulted from a scarcity of capital, the allocation of which was a matter of politics, not culture. Antipoverty programs that ignored this reality had the potential, perversely, of exacerbating inequality because they would only reinforce the power of elites. As she wrote in her dissertation, "many government programs inadvertently foster stratification by channeling resources through village officials", who then used the money to strengthen their own status further.[17]


Illness and death[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

In late 1994, Dunham was living and working in Indonesia. One night, during dinner at a friend's house in Jakarta, she experienced stomach pain. A visit to a local physician led to an initial diagnosis of indigestion.[18] Dunham returned to the United States in early 1995 and was examined at the Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center in New York City and diagnosed with uterine cancer. By this time, the cancer had spread to her ovaries.[19] She moved back to Hawaii to live near her widowed mother and died on November 7, 1995, 22 days short of her 53rd birthday.[20][21][9][22][23] Following a memorial service at the University of Hawaii, Obama and his sister spread their mother's ashes in the Pacific Ocean at Lanai Lookout on the south side of Oahu.[9] Obama scattered the ashes of his grandmother Madelyn Dunham in the same spot on December 23, 2008, weeks after his election to the presidency.[24]

Obama talked about Dunham's death in a 30-second campaign advertisement ("Mother") arguing for health care reform. The ad featured a photograph of Dunham holding a young Obama in her arms as Obama talks about her last days worrying about expensive medical bills.[23] The topic also came up in a 2007 speech in Santa Barbara:[23]

I remember my mother. She was 52 years old when she died of ovarian cancer, and you know what she was thinking about in the last months of her life? She wasn't thinking about getting well. She wasn't thinking about coming to terms with her own mortality. She had been diagnosed just as she was transitioning between jobs. And she wasn't sure whether insurance was going to cover the medical expenses because they might consider this a preexisting condition. I remember just being heartbroken, seeing her struggle through the paperwork and the medical bills and the insurance forms. So, I have seen what it's like when somebody you love is suffering because of a broken health care system. And it's wrong. It's not who we are as a people.[23]

Dunham's employer-provided health insurance covered most of the costs of her medical treatment, leaving her to pay the deductible and uncovered expenses, which came to several hundred dollars per month.[25] Her employer-provided disability insurance denied her claims for uncovered expenses because the insurance company said her cancer was a preexisting condition.[25]

Posthumous interest[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

In September 2008, the University of Hawaii at Mānoa held a symposium about Dunham.[26] In December 2009, Duke University Press published a version of Dunham's dissertation titled Surviving against the Odds: Village Industry in Indonesia. The book was revised and edited by Dunham's graduate advisor, Alice G. Dewey, and Nancy I. Cooper. Dunham's daughter, Maya Soetoro-Ng, wrote the foreword for the book. In his afterword, Boston University anthropologist Robert W. Hefner describes Dunham's research as "prescient" and her legacy as "relevant today for anthropology, Indonesian studies, and engaged scholarship".[27] The book was launched at the 2009 annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association in Philadelphia with a special Presidential Panel on Dunham's work; The 2009 meeting was taped by C-SPAN.[28]

Filmmaker Vivian Norris's feature length biographical film of Ann Dunham entitled Obama Mama (La mère d'Obama-French title) premiered on May 31, 2014 as part of the 40th annual Seattle International Film Festival, not far from where Dunham grew up on Mercer Island.[29]

Personal beliefs[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

In his 1995 memoir Dreams from My Father, Barack Obama wrote, "My mother's confidence in needlepoint virtues depended on a faith I didn't possess... In a land [Indonesia] where fatalism remained a necessary tool for enduring hardship ... she was a lonely witness for secular humanism, a soldier for New Deal, Peace Corps, position-paper liberalism."[30] In his 2006 book The Audacity of Hope Obama wrote, "I was not raised in a religious household ... My mother's own experiences ... only reinforced this inherited skepticism. Her memories of the Christians who populated her youth were not fond ones ... And yet for all her professed secularism, my mother was in many ways the most spiritually awakened person that I've ever known."[31] "Religion for her was "just one of the many ways—and not necessarily the best way—that man attempted to control the unknowable and understand the deeper truths about our lives," Obama wrote:[32]

She felt that somehow, wandering through uncharted territory, we might stumble upon something that will, in an instant, seem to represent who we are at the core. That was very much her philosophy of life—to not be limited by fear or narrow definitions, to not build walls around ourselves and to do our best to find kinship and beauty in unexpected places.
—Maya Soetoro-Ng[9]

Dunham's best friend in high school, Maxine Box, said that Dunham "touted herself as an atheist, and it was something she'd read about and could argue. She was always challenging and arguing and comparing. She was already thinking about things that the rest of us hadn't."[6][33] On the other hand, Dunham's daughter, Maya Soetoro-Ng, when asked later if her mother was an atheist, said, "I wouldn't have called her an atheist. She was an agnostic. She basically gave us all the good books—the Bible, the Hindu Upanishads and the Buddhist scripture, the Tao Te Ching—and wanted us to recognize that everyone has something beautiful to contribute."[34] "Jesus, she felt, was a wonderful example. But she felt that a lot of Christians behaved in un-Christian ways."[32]

In a 2007 speech, Obama contrasted the beliefs of his mother to those of her parents, and commented on her spirituality and skepticism: "My mother, whose parents were nonpracticing Baptists and Methodists, was one of the most spiritual souls I ever knew. But she had a healthy skepticism of religion as an institution."[18]

Obama also described his own beliefs in relation to the religious upbringing of his mother and father:

My father was from Kenya and a lot of people in his village were Muslim. He didn't practice Islam. Truth is he wasn't very religious. He met my mother. My mother was a Christian from Kansas, and they married and then divorced. I was raised by my mother. So, I've always been a Christian. The only connection I've had to Islam is that my grandfather on my father's side came from that country. But I've never practiced Islam.[35]


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Publications[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

  • Dunham, S Ann (1982). Civil rights of working Indonesian women. OCLC 428080409.
  • Dunham, S Ann (1982). The effects of industrialization on women workers in Indonesia. OCLC 428078083.
  • Dunham, S Ann (1982). Women's work in village industries on Java. OCLC 663711102.
  • Dunham, S Ann (1983). Women's economic activities in North Coast fishing communities: background for a proposal from PPA. OCLC 428080414.
  • Dunham, S Ann; Haryanto, Roes (1990). BRI Briefing Booklet: KUPEDES Development Impact Survey. Jakarta: Bank Rakyat Indonesia.
  • Dunham, S Ann (1992). Peasant blacksmithing in Indonesia : surviving against all odds (Thesis). Honolulu: University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa. OCLC 608906279, 607863728 and 221709485.
  • Dunham, S Ann; Liputo, Yuliani; Prabantoro, Andityas (2008). Pendekar-pendekar besi Nusantara : kajian antropologi tentang pandai besi tradisional di Indonesia [Nusantara iron warrior-warrior: anthropological studies of traditional blacksmiths in Indonesia] (in Indonesian). Bandung, Indonesia: Mizan. ISBN 9789794335345. OCLC 778260082.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Dunham, S Ann (2010) [2009]. Dewey, Alice G; Cooper, Nancy I (eds.). Surviving against the odds : village industry in Indonesia. Foreword by Maya Soetoro-Ng; afterword by Robert W. Hefner. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. ISBN 9780822346876. OCLC 492379459 and 652066335.
  • Dunham, S Ann; Ghildyal, Anita (2012). Ann Dunham's legacy : a collection of Indonesian batik. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Islamic Arts Museum Malaysia. ISBN 9789834469672. OCLC 809731662.


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Notes[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

  1. ^ "S. Ann Dunham – Surviving against the Odds: Village Industry in Indonesia". Dukeupress.edu. Retrieved August 20, 2014.
  2. ^ Scott (2011), p. 6

    Anyone writing about Dunham's life must address the question of what to call her. She was Stanley Ann Dunham at birth and Stanley Ann as a child, but dropped the Stanley upon graduating from high school. She was Ann Dunham, then Ann Obama, then Ann Soetoro until her second divorce. Then she kept her husband's name but modernized the spelling to Sutoro. In the early 1980s, she was Ann Sutoro, Ann Dunham Sutoro, S. Ann Dunham Sutoro. In conversation, Indonesians who worked with her in the late 1980s and early 1990s referred to her as Ann Dunham, putting the emphasis on the second syllable of the surname. Toward the end of her life, she signed her dissertation S. Ann Dunham and official correspondence (Stanley) Ann Dunham.

    p. 363:
    modernized the spelling: The spelling of certain Indonesian words changed after Indonesia gained its independence from the Dutch in 1949, and again under a 1972 agreement between Indonesia and Malaysia... Names containing oe,... are now often spelled with a u... However, older spellings are still used in some personal names... After her divorce from Lolo Soetoro, Ann Dunham kept his last name for a number of years while she was still working in Indonesia, but she changed the spelling to Sutoro. Their daughter, Maya Soetoro-Ng, chose to keep the traditional spelling of her Indonesian surname.

  3. ^ The University of Hawaii at Manoa Department of Anthropology says Ann Dunham received a B.A. in anthropology in August 1967 and contemporaneous correspondence in 1966 and 1967 between S. Ann Soetoro and the INS makes repeated references to her obtaining a BA in anthropology in 1967.
  4. ^ أ ب Dewey, Alice; White, Geoffrey (November 2008). "Ann Dunham: a personal reflection". Anthropology News. 49 (8): 20. doi:10.1111/an.2008.49.8.20. Archived from the original on June 10, 2010. Retrieved August 23, 2009. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help) reprinted by:
  5. ^ "The Ann Dunham Soetoro Endowed Fund". Retrieved January 2, 2012.
  6. ^ أ ب Jones, Tim (March 27, 2007). "Barack Obama: mother not just a girl from Kansas; Stanley Ann Dunham shaped a future senator". Chicago Tribune. p. 1 (Tempo). Archived from the original on April 2, 2012. Retrieved February 16, 2009. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)
    . (March 27, 2007). "Video: Reflections on Obama's mother (02:34)". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on March 29, 2009. Retrieved February 16, 2009. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
    . (March 27, 2007). "Video: Jim Wichterman reflects on his former student (02:03)". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on March 29, 2009. Retrieved February 16, 2009. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
    . (March 27, 2007). "Video: She changed his diapers (01:02)". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on March 30, 2009. Retrieved February 16, 2009. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  7. ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح خ د ذ ر ز س ش ص خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Mizan 2008
  8. ^ Van Dam, Emma (September 28, 2009). "Exploring the 'real' Indonesia with the Heritage Society". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved January 1, 2011.
  9. ^ أ ب ت ث خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة freespirit
  10. ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح خ د Dunham, S. Ann; Dewey, Alice G.; Cooper, Nancy I. (2009). "Appendix. Other projects undertaken by the author related to the present research". Surviving against the odds: village industry in Indonesia. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press. pp. 299–301. ISBN 978-0-8223-4687-6.
  11. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة January 8, 1976 letter
  12. ^ Sutoro, Ann Dunham; Haryanto, Roes (1990). BRI briefing booklet: KUPEDES development impact survey. Jakarta: Bank Rakyat Indonesia.
  13. ^ Kampfner, Judith (September 15, 2009). "Dreams from my mother". London: BBC World Service. Retrieved February 16, 2010.
  14. ^ Wilhelm, Ian (December 3, 2008). "Ford Foundation links parents of Obama and Treasury secretary nominee". The Chronicle of Philanthropy. Archived from the original on December 11, 2008. Retrieved December 20, 2008. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)
  15. ^ Scott (2011), p. 292.
  16. ^ Dunham, S. Ann (1992). "Peasant blacksmithing in Indonesia : surviving against all odds". Honolulu: University of Hawaii. OCLC 65874559. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  17. ^ أ ب ت Dove, Michael R. (August 11, 2009). "Dreams from his mother". The New York Times. p. A21. Retrieved August 11, 2009.
  18. ^ أ ب خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة ripley
  19. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة maraniss
  20. ^ "Obituaries: Stanley Ann Dunham". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. November 14, 1995. p. C12. Retrieved July 13, 2018.
  21. ^ "Obituaries: Stanley Ann Dunham". The Honolulu Advertiser. November 17, 1995. p. D6. Retrieved July 13, 2018.
  22. ^ Chipman, Kim (February 11, 2008). "Obama drive gets inspiration from his white mom born in Kansas". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved February 11, 2008.
  23. ^ أ ب ت ث McCormick, John (September 21, 2007). "Obama's mother in new ad". Chicago Tribune. p. 3. Retrieved January 17, 2008.
  24. ^ . (December 24, 2008). "Obama bids farewell to grandmother (photo gallery)". New York Post. Retrieved December 25, 2008.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  25. ^ أ ب Scott (2011), pp. 328–336.
    Gerhart, Ann (July 14, 2011). "Obama's mother had health insurance, according to biography". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 2, 2012.
  26. ^ Essoyan, Susan (September 18, 2008). "A woman of the people: a symposium recalls the efforts of Stanley Ann Dunham to aid the poor". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Archived from the original on October 6, 2008. Retrieved November 5, 2008. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)
  27. ^ Office of News & Communications (May 4, 2009). "Book by President Barack Obama's mother to be published by Duke University Press". Durham, NC, USA: Duke University. Archived from the original on August 6, 2012. Retrieved March 9, 2013. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
    See also:
  28. ^ . (December 16, 2009). "C-SPAN airs 2009 presidential session on S. Ann Dunham". Arlington, Va.: American Anthropological Association. Archived from the original on June 13, 2010. Retrieved May 10, 2010. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
    American Anthropological Association – 108th annual meeting – Philadelphia (December 3, 2009). "Panel on Ann Dunham's "Surviving against the odds: village industry in Indonesia" (video 1:57:18)". Washington, D.C.: Book TV. Retrieved April 5, 2015.
  29. ^ "Obama Mama". Seattle International Film Festival. Archived from the original on February 17, 2015. Retrieved February 19, 2015. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)
  30. ^ De Zutter, Hank (December 8, 1995). "What makes Obama run?". Chicago Reader. Archived from the original on May 2, 2008. Retrieved April 1, 2008. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)
  31. ^ Obama, Barack (October 15, 2006). "Book excerpt (from The Audacity of Hope)". Time. Archived from the original on March 14, 2008. Retrieved February 28, 2008. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)
  32. ^ أ ب Sabar, Ariel (July 16, 2007). "Barack Obama: Putting faith out front". The Christian Science Monitor. p. 1. Archived from the original on July 3, 2008. Retrieved June 1, 2008. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)
  33. ^ Jones, Tim (March 27, 2007). "Family portraits - Strong personalities shaped a future senator, Barack Obama". Chicago Tribune.
  34. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Solomon 2008
  35. ^ Anburajan, Aswini (2007-12-22). "Obama asked about connection to Islam". First Read. msnbc.com. Archived from the original on 6 March 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-28. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)
    Saul, Michael (December 22, 2007). "I'm no Muslim, says Barack Obama". New York Daily News. Retrieved February 28, 2008.

== المراجع ==* Maraniss, David (June 19, 2012). Barack Obama: the story. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4391-6040-4.

للاستزادة[تحرير | عدل المصدر]

تمّ الاسترجاع من "https://www.marefa.org/آن_دنم"