Avicenna's monument in Avicenna Square in Hamadan
|الارتفاع||1,850 m (6,070 ft)|
|منطقة التوقيت||IRST (UTC+3:30)|
|• الصيف (التوقيت الصيفي)||IRDT (UTC+4:30)|
Hamadan is believed to be among the oldest Iranian cities and one of the oldest in the world.
Hamadan has a green mountainous area in the foothills of the 3574-meter Alvand Mountain, in the midwest part of Iran. The city is 1850 meters above sea level.
The special nature of this old city and its historic sites attract tourists during the summer to this city, located approximately 360 km southwest of Tehran.
According to an inscription from the first Assyrian king, Hamadan's construction is dated at 1100 BC, but some historians believe it dates back to 3000 BC.
Hamadan is mentioned in the biblical book of Ezra as the place where a scroll was found giving the Jews permission from King Darius to rebuild the temple in Jerusalem. (Ezra 6:2). Its ancient name of Ecbatana is used in the Ezra text. Because it was a mile above sea level, it was a good place to preserve leather documents.
During the Parthian era, Ctesiphon was the capital of the country, and Hamadan the summer capital and residence of the Parthian rulers. After the Parthians, the Sassanids constructed their summer palaces in Hamadan. In the year 633 the battle of Nahavand took place and Hamadan fell into the hands of the Muslim Arabs.
The city of Hamadan, its fortunes following the rise and fall of regional powers, was completely destroyed during the Timurid invasion. During the Safavid era the city thrived. Thereafter, in the 18th century, Hamadan was surrendered to the Ottomans, but due to the courage and chivalry of Nader Shah Afshar, Hamadan was cleared of invaders and, as a result of a peace treaty between Iran and the Ottomans, it was returned to Iran. Hamadan stands on the Silk Road, and even in recent centuries the city enjoyed strong commerce and trade as a result of its location on the main road network in the western region of Persia and Iran.
During الحرب العالمية الأولى, the city was the scene of heavy fighting between Russian and Turko-German forces. It was occupied by both armies, and finally by the British, before it was returned to control of the Iranian government at the end of the war in 1918.
Hamadan province lies in a temperate mountainous region to the east of Zagros. The vast plains of the north and northeast of the province are influenced by strong winds, that almost last throughout the year. The various air currents of this region are: the north and north west winds of the spring and winter seasons, which are usually humid and bring rainfall. The west-east air currents that blow in the autumn, and the local winds that develop due to difference in air-pressure between the elevated areas and the plains, like the blind wind of the Asad Abad region.
Hamadan is in the vicinity of the Alvand mountains and has a cold, mountainous climate, with snowy winters. In fact, it is one of the coldest cities in Iran. The temperature may drop below -30°C on the coldest days. Heavy snowfall is common during winter and this can persist for periods of up to two months. During the short summer, the weather is mild, pleasant, and mostly sunny.
Hamadan is home to many poets and cultural celebrities. The city is also said to be among the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities.
Handicrafts: Hamadan has always been well known for handicrafts like leather, ceramic, and beautiful carpets.
Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization lists 207 sites of historical and cultural significance in the city of Hamadan alone.
Legend has it that the biblical Esther is buried in Hamadan.
The scientist and writer known in the west as Avicenna (Abu Ali Sina) is buried in Hamadan.
The 11th century Persian poet Baba Taher is also interred in Hamadan.
The residents of Hamadan are very proud of the city's historical heritage. Another source of their pride is Avicenna (aka Bouali, Buali, Ebn-e-sina, Pur-e-Sina) who is buried in Hamadan. Primary schools, high schools, and the main city's university are named after him. Even shops and businesses are named after him. Bouali Street is a very busy one and a favorite pastime of Hamadanians is to stroll up and down the street where they frequently bump into their acquaintances. The city has a population of around 600,000 including its outer suburbs. Hamadan is generally a prosperous city; the northern districts are mainly lower middle-class or working class, whereas the southern half of city is where the upper middle class and the rich live.
Hamadan is also known for training the best wrestlers in Iran. Hamadan has a very good wrestling team.
أماكن جذب السياح
- Ali Sadr Cave
- Avicenna (Abu Ali Sina) Ibn Sina mausoleum
- Baba Tahir Mausleum
- Estakhr e Abbas Abad (an over-the-hill lake with a magnificent view to the city.
- Ester & Mordekhai tomb
- Excavated Ancient Ekbatana City
- Gonbad-e Alavian
- Hamadan Museum of Natural History
- Hamadan Stone Lion
- Mohammadi House
- Nazari House
- Shrine of Esther and Mordechai
الكليات و الجامعات
- Bu-Ali Sina University
- Hamedan Medical University
- Islamic Azad University of Hamadan
- Hamadan University of Technology
شخصيات همدانية مشهورة
- Abolhassan Banisadr, Economist, Politician, the first post-revolutionary elected President of the Islamic Republic of Iran
- Amir Nosrat'ollah Balakhanlou, Born in Tehran — Two-time Mayor and MP for Hamadan (1950s and early 1960s). شهردار مردمی شهر همدان
- Amir-Shahab Razavian, film director, writer and producer
- Ardeshir Bahmani, A veteran teacher and a national expert on Hafez poems
- Baba-Taher-e Oryan, Iranian famous Poet (1100 A.c)
- Bahar Soomekh, Renown Iranian-born Jewish American actress (Hamadanian father)
- Ebrahim Bahrololoum Razavi, Philosopher, and the first Iranian to receive a doctorate degree in Philosophy from University of Baghdad (1954)
- EIN-ALQOZAT HAMADANI (عین القضات همدانی), Great philosopher and sufist (1100 A.C)
- Ehsan Yarshater, Historian, scientists, and founder of Encyclopedia IRANICA; born in Hamedan
- Fazlollah Zahedi, Military general
- Fereydoun Moshiri, Originally is from Hamadan, but was born in Tehran, Contemporary Poet
- Hanieh Tavassoli, Actress
- Hasan Habibi, Politician
- Hosseini Davar, Celebrated pro-Mossadeq poet
- Jalal Cheshmeh-Ghassabani, National Mountaineer who has successfully climbed Mount Everest twice
- Khosrow Golsorkhi, Journalist, poet, and communist activisit
- Roghieh "Maman Hamedan" Ghamarian, mother of many well known Ghamarians that are very active in the Washington D.C. community, such as Dr. Ahmad Ghamarian, Dr. Nina Ghamarian, Dr. Ghafoor Ghamary, and Mohandes Ali Ghamarian.
- Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani, A celebrated sufi saint and poet.
- Mirza Esmaeel Farid, aka Farid od-Dowleh, Fath'Ali Shah Qajar's son, Governor of Hamadan
- Mirzadeh Eshghi, A celebrated nationalist poet
- Mohammad Fakhreddin-e Araghi, Celebrated poet (1300 A.C)
- Parviz Parastouei, Acclaimed actor
- Shirin Ebadi, Lawyer and the 2003 Nobel Peace Laureate
- Mirza Gholam-Hossein Bargharari, Philosopher and poet
- Mohammad-Ali Zolfi-Gol, Chemist and the current chancellor of Buali Sina University
- Samuel Rahbar, Scientist
- Hamid Omrani, Architect
- Abolmohsen Salemi, was born in 1913 in Hamedan, Iran.Death:September 23, 2008 in Arcadia,ca .
He was a famous journalist, lawyer, poet and writer in Hamedan and Tehran. His newspaper, Mobarez Hamedan was published for many years in Hamedan and Tehran.
Hamedan Medical University
- Ecbatana, Photos from Iran, Livius.
- Gandj Nameh, Photos from Iran, Livius.
- The Bisotun inscription, Photos from Iran, Livius.
- Photos from Hamadan City
- Hamadan City
- Hamadan: Older than history
- Hamadan; Capital of Median Empire
- Iconos satellite photo (January, 2005)
- Google Satellite Picture
- Hamedan Cultural Heritage Organization
- Hegmataneh Official Website
- Hamadān entries in the Encyclopædia Iranica
- Various Photos of Hamadan - Photos of Esthers Shirne, Tomb of Avicenna, Gonbad Alavian, Tomb of Baba Taher, Stone Lion, Ganjnameh and the City.