كلبيات

Canids[1]
Temporal range: 39.75–0 م.س.
Late Eocene - Recent
Coyote (Canis latrans)
التصنيف العلمي
Kingdom: الحيوان
Phylum: حبليات
Class: ثدييات
Order: آكلات اللحوم
Suborder: Caniformia
Family: Canidae
G. Fischer de Waldheim, 1817
Genera and species

See text

الكلبيات فصيلة من الحيوانات الثديية تضم عدد من الأنواع مثل :

الخصائص

حيوانات إصبعية تعيش في مختلف البيئات و تتفاوت أطوالها من 24 سم إلى مترين و قد تصل كتلتها إلى 80 كجم و تتمتع بسيقان طويلة نسبيا و أجسام مرنة تساعدها على مطاردة الفريسة إضافة لزمعات في أرجلها الأمامية و تتميز عن الزباديات بمخالب غير قابلة للإنكماش كما أنها تمتلك عظمة القضيب التي تساعدها على التسافد و تولد صغارها عمياء و لا تبصر إلا بعد أسابيع من الولادة.


الفصائل والتصنيفات

عائلة الكلبيات

Subfamily: Caninae

  • Basal Caninae
    • Genus Otocyon (probably a vulpine close to Urocyon)
    • Genus Nyctereutes

Fossil Canidae

Prehistoric Caninae

  • Canini
    • Genus Canis
      • Dire Wolf, Canis dirus (1 Ma )
      • Canis arnensis (3.4 Ma, )
      • Canis (Eucyon) cipio (8.2 Ma , probably first species of Canis genus)
      • Canis etruscus (3.4 Ma )
      • Canis mosbachensis (0.787 Ma )
      • Canis lepophagus (4-5 Ma )
      • Canis donnezani (4.0-3.1 Ma , probably ancestor of wolves)
      • Canis edwardii (1.8 Ma , first species of wolf in North America)
      • Canis gezi
      • Canis nehringi
      • Canis ameghinoi
      • Canis michauxi
      • Canis adoxus
      • Canis cautleyi
      • Canis armbrusteri (0.8 Ma )
    • Genus Theriodictis (1.8 Ma )
      • Theriodictis platensis (1.8 Ma )
      • Theriodictis tarijensis (1.8 Ma )
      • Theriodictis (Canis) proplatensis (2.1 Ma )
    • Genus Protocyon
      • Protocyon orcesi
      • Protocyon scagliarum
      • Protocyon troglodytes
    • Genus Dusicyon
      • Dusicyon avus
    • Genus Cerdocyon
    • Genus Speothos
    • Genus Nurocyon
      • Nurocyon chonokhariensis
    • Genus Xenocyon
  • Vulpini
    • Genus Vulpes (7 Ma to present)
      • Vulpes alopecoides (2.6 Ma )
      • Vulpes cf. alopecoides (2.6 Ma )
      • Vulpes cf. vulpes (0.1275 Ma )
      • Vulpes galaticus (4.2 Ma )
      • Vulpes riffautae (7 Ma )
  • Basal Canids
    • Genus Nyctereutes (7.1 Ma to present)
      • Nyctereutes cf. donnezani (7.1 Ma )
      • Nyctereutes cf. megamastoides (3.158 Ma )
      • Nyctereutes donnezani (3.4 Ma )
      • Nyctereutes megamostoides (2.6 Ma )
      • Nyctereutes sinensis (3.4 Ma )
  • First Caninae
    • Genus Eucyon (8 Ma †)
      • Eucyon davisi (8.3 Ma , probably ancestor of Canis)
      • Eucyon minor (8 Ma )
      • Eucyon zhoui (8 Ma )
      • Eucyon monticinensis(8 Ma )
      • Eucyon odessanus
    • Genus Leptocyon (24-16 Ma †)
      • Leptocyon vafer (16 Ma)
      • Leptocyon vulpinus (24 Ma)

Borophaginae : (Ma = million years ago)

    • Genus Aelurodon (16-12 Ma)
      • Aelurodon asthenostylus (16 Ma)
      • Aelurodon ferox (15 Ma)
      • Aelurodon mcgrewi (15 Ma)
      • Aelurodon montanensis (15 Ma)[2]
      • Aelurodon stirtoni (13 Ma)
      • Aelurodon taxoides (12 Ma)
    • Genus Archaeocyon (32-24 Ma)
      • Archaeocyon falkenbachi (25-24 Ma)
      • Archaeocyon leptodus (32-24 Ma)
      • Archaeocyon pavidus (32-28 Ma)
    • Genus Borophagus (12-5 Ma)
      • Borophagus dividersidens (5 Ma)
      • Borophagus dudleyi
      • Borophagus hilli (6 Ma)
      • Borophagus littoralis (12 Ma)
      • Borophagus orc (9 Ma)
      • Borophagus parvus (7 Ma)
      • Borophagus pugnator (9 Ma)
      • Borophagus secundus (9 Ma)
    • Genus Carpocyon
      • Carpocyon compressus
      • Carpocyon limosus
      • Carpocyon robustus
      • Carpocyon webbi
    • Genus Cormocyon
      • Cormocyon copei
      • Cormocyon haydeni
    • Genus Cynarctoides (30-18 Ma)
      • Cynarctoides acridens (24 Ma)
      • Cynarctoides emryi (21 Ma)
      • Cynarctoides gawnae (18 Ma)
      • Cynarctoides harlowi (21 Ma)
      • Cynarctoides lemur (30 Ma)
      • Cynarctoides luskensis (21 Ma)
      • Cynarctoides roii (30 Ma)
    • Genus Cynarctus (16-12 Ma)
      • Cynarctus crucidens (12 Ma)
      • Cynarctus galushai (16 Ma)
      • ?Cynarctus marylandica
      • Cynarctus saxatilis (15 Ma)
      • Cynarctus voorhiesi (13 Ma)
    • Genus Desmocyon (24-19 Ma)
      • Desmocyon matthewi (19 Ma)
      • Desmocyon thompsoni (24 Ma)
    • Genus Epicyon (12-10 Ma)
      • Epicyon aelurodontoides (10.3-4.9 Ma)
      • Epicyon haydeni (10 Ma)
      • Epicyon saevus (12 Ma)
    • Genus Eulopocyon (18-16 Ma)
      • Eulopocyon brachygnathus (16 Ma)
      • Eulopocyon spissidens (18 Ma)
    • Genus Metatomarctus (19-16 Ma)
      • Metatomarctus canavus (19 Ma)
      • Metatomarctus sp. A (16 Ma)
      • Metatomarctus sp. B (16 Ma)
    • Genus Microtomarctus (18 Ma)
      • Microtomarctus conferta (18 Ma)
    • Genus Otarocyon (34-30 Ma)
      • Otarocyon cooki (30 Ma)
      • Otarocyon macdonaldi (34 Ma)
    • Genus Oxetocyon (32 Ma)
      • Oxetocyon cuspidatus (32 Ma)
    • Genus Paracynarctus (19-16 Ma)
      • Paracynarctus kelloggi (19 Ma)
      • Paracynarctus sinclairi (16 Ma)
    • Genus Paratomarctus (16-13 Ma)
      • Paratomarctus euthos (13 Ma)
      • Paratomarctus temerarius (16 Ma)
    • Genus Phlaocyon (30-19 Ma)
      • Phlaocyon achoros
      • Phlaocyon annectens (22 Ma)
      • Phlaocyon latidens (30 Ma)
      • Phlaocyon leucosteus (22 Ma)
      • Phlaocyon mariae
      • Phlaocyon marslandensis (19 Ma)
      • Phlaocyon minor (30 Ma)
      • Phlaocyon multicuspus
      • Phlaocyon taylori[3]
      • Phlaocyon yakolai (19 Ma)
    • Genus Protepicyon (16 Ma)
      • Protepicyon raki (16 Ma)
    • Genus Protomarctus (18 Ma)
      • Protomarctus optatus (18 Ma)
    • Genus Psalidocyon (16 Ma)
      • Psalidocyon marianae (16 Ma)
    • Genus Rhizocyon (30 Ma)
      • Rhizocyon oregonensis (30 Ma)
    • Genus Tephrocyon (16 Ma)
      • Tephrocyon rurestris (16 Ma)
    • Genus Tomarctus (16 Ma)
      • Tomarctus brevirostris (16 Ma)
      • Tomarctus hippophaga (16 Ma)

Hesperocyoninae : (Ma = million years ago)

    • Genus Cynodesmus (32-29 Ma)
      • Cynodesmus martini (29 Ma)
      • Cynodesmus thooides (32 Ma)
    • ?Genus Caedocyon
      • Caedocyon tedfordi
    • Genus Ectopocynus (32-19 Ma)
      • Ectopocynus antiquus (32 Ma)
      • Ectopocynus intermedius (29 Ma)
      • Ectopocynus siplicidens (19 Ma)
    • Genus Enhydrocyon (29-25 Ma)
      • Enhydrocyon basilatus (25 Ma)
      • Enhydrocyon crassidens (25 Ma)
      • Enhydrocyon pahinsintewkpa (29 Ma)
      • Enhydrocyon stenocephalus (29 Ma)
    • Genus Hesperocyon (39.74-34 Ma)
      • Hesperocyon coloradensis
      • Hesperocyon gregarius (37 Ma)
    • Genus Mesocyon (34-29 Ma)
      • Mesocyon brachyops (29 Ma)
      • Mesocyon coryphaeus (29 Ma)
      • Mesocyn temnodon
    • Genus Osbornodon (32-18 Ma)
      • Osbornodon brachypus
      • Osbornodon fricki (18 Ma)
      • Osbornodon iamonensis (21 Ma)
      • Osbornodon renjiei (33 Ma)
      • Osbornodon scitulus[4]
      • Osbornodon sesnoni (32 Ma)
      • Osbornodon wangi[3]
    • Genus Paraenhydrocyon (30-25 Ma)
      • Paraenhydrocyon josephi (30 Ma)
      • Paraenhydrocyon robustus (25 Ma)
      • Paraenhydrocyon wallovianus (26 Ma)
    • Genus Philotrox (29 Ma)
      • Philotrox condoni (29 Ma)
    • Genus Prohesperocyon (36 Ma)
      • Prohesperocyon wilsoni (36 Ma)
    • Genus Sunkahetanka (29 Ma)
      • Sunkahetanka geringensis (29 Ma)

مراجع

  1. ^ Wozencraft, W. C. (16 November 2005). Wilson, D. E., and Reeder, D. M. (eds), ed. Mammal Species of the World (3rd edition ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-801-88221-4.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  2. ^ Wang, Xiaoming; Wideman, Benjamin, Nichols, Ralph, & Hanneman, Debra (2004). "A new species of Aelurodon (Carnivora, Canidae) from the Barstovian of Montana". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 24 (2): 445–452. doi:10.1671/2493. Retrieved 2007-07-08. 
  3. ^ أ ب Hayes, F.G. (2000). "The Brooksville 2 local fauna (Arikareean, latest Oligocene) Hernando County, Florida". Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History 43 (1): 1–47. 
  4. ^ Wang, Xiaoming (2003). "New Material of Osbornodon from the Early Hemingfordian of Nebraska and Florida". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 279: 163–176. 

مراجع عامة

Xiaoming Wang, Richard H. Tedford, Mauricio Antón, Dogs: Their Fossil Relatives and Evolutionary History, New York : Columbia University Press, 2008; ISBN 978-0-231-13528-3


وصلات خارجية

قالب:Canidae nav