التقويم الصيني

Zhongwen.svg هذه المقالة تحتوي على نص صيني.
بدون دعم الإظهار المناسب، فقد ترى علامات استفهام ومربعات ورموز أخرى بدلاً من الحروف الصينية.
تقويم في صفحة واحدة لسنة Guisi، للشهور القمرية (يبيـِّن أسماء الشهور في التقاويم الصينية والهجرية والتبتية)

التقويم الصيني هو تقويم شمسي قمري، إذ يتضمن عناصر من التقويم القمري مع أخرى من التقويم الشمسي. وهو ليس مقطوراً على الصين، بل يتـَّبعه العديد من الثقافات الآسيوية الأخرى. واليوم في معظم شرق آسيا، فإن التقويم الگريگوري يستخدم للأنشطة اليومية، ولكن التقويم الصيني مازال مستخدماً في حساب العطلات، مثل رأس السنة الصينية، عيد دوان فو، وفي التنجيم، مثل اختيار أنسب تاريخ للزواج أو افتتاح منشأة. ولأن كل شهر يتبع دورة القمر، فإنه يُستخدم لتحديد أطوار القمر.

عموماً، فإن السنة في التقويم الصيني تبدأ بيوم اختفاء القمر قرب البداية الربيعية. وكل شهر، ماعدا الشهر النسيء، يناظر نقطة المنتصف في الفترة الشمسية.

السنة الحالية (2012-1-23~2013-2-9) هي سنة Rechen.

مثال لتقويم صيني.
تقويم مجمَّع، يظهر النظام الگريگوري إلى الأسفل وجدول الأبراج الصينية إلى الأعلى.
مقياس زمني (التقويم الگريگوري مقابل التقويم الصيني)

التاريخ

بدأ عام 2637 ق.م.، وهي السنة التي يُفترض أن الإمبراطور الأسطوري هوانجدي قد وضع فيها التقويم. يُنظم هذا التقويم السنين في دورات من 60 سنة. على سبيل المثال، سنة 2000 م هي السنة السابعة عشرة في الدورة 78. وتُعرف السنة داخل كل دورة بمجموعة كلمات مكونة من سلسلتين من المصطلحات، واحدة منها تتضمن اسم أي حيوان من بين 12 حيوانًا. وهذه الحيوانات مرتبة حسب ظهورها في الدورة وهي: الجرذ، الثور، النمر، الأرنب البرّي، التّنّين، الأفعى، الحصان، الخروف، القرد، الديك، الكلب، الخنزير. وسنة 2000 في التقويم الصيني هي سنة التّنّين.

وتعتمد السنة الصينية على القمر وعادة ما تتكون من 12 شهرًا. يبدأ كل شهر بالقمر الجديد ويتكون من 29 أو 30 يومًا. يُضاف شهر للسنة سبع مرات كل 19 سنة حتى يبقى التقويم والفصول متطابقين تقريبًا. تبدأ السنة بالقمر الجديد الثاني بعد بداية الشتاء.

تقويم تاي‌چو

صحيح الشمس والقمر

الإصلاح الگريگوري

الوقت العياري

الهيكلية

العملية التقويمية (الشمس الحقة) للتقويم الصيني مسرودة أدناه.

1. Decide the days -> 2. Decide the months -> 3. Decide the midpoints of solar terms -> 4. Decide the month names(include Intercalary month) -> 5. Decide the year -> 6. Decide the year name -> 7. Mark the stem-branches for each days -> 8. Mark the nodes and midpoints of the solar terms -> 9. Mark the festivals -> 10. Make the calendar.

اليوم (Rì日)

A day in the Chinese calendar Runs from midnight to the next midnight, just as that in Gregorian calendar do.

الأسبوع

Days are grouped with several kind of week.

  • أسبوع العشرة أيام

The days are grouped with 10-days week, which is called as ten celestial stems (or heavenly stems). The names of each weekdays are Jia-day, Yi-day, Bin-day, Ding-day, Wu-day, Ji-day, Geng-day, Xin-day, Ren-day, and Gui-day.

2013-1-31 is Ding-day.

  • أسبوع الإثنا عشر يوماً

The days are grouped with 12-day week, which is called as 12 earthly branches. The names of each weekdays are Zi-day, Chou-day, Yin-day, Mao-day, Chen-day, Si-day, Wu-day, Wei-day, Shen-day, You-day, Xu-day, and Hai-day.

2013-1-31 is You-day.

  • أسبوع الستين يوماً

The 10-day week system and 12-day week system are used in couple, and become a 60-day week which is called as 60 stem-branches.

2013-1-31 is Dingyou-day.

  • أسبوع السبع أيام

The days are grouped with 7-day week, which is called as Xingqi(Luminary-day). The name of each weekdays are Sun-day, Moon-day, Mars-day, Mercury-day, Jupiter-day, Venus-day, and Saturn-day.

In modern China, the names is changed with ordinal number except sunday: Xingqi Ri (Sunday), Xingqi Yi (First-day), Xingqi Er (Second-day), Xingqi San (Third-day), Xingqi Si (Fourth-day), Xingqi Wu (Fifth-day), Xingqi Liu (Sixth-day).

2013-1-31 is Fouth-day(Thursday).

الشهر (Yuè月)

The month in the Chinese calandar is a lunar term between days with dark moon A month contains the day with dark moon wholly.

         Synodic month(29.48 days)  2013-01-12 03:43:36     ~     2013-02-10 15:20:06
       + Dark moon day              2013-01-12 00:00:00     ~     2013-01-13 00:00:00
       - Next dark moon day         2013-02-10 00:00:00     ~     2013-02-11 00:00:00
     -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
         The month(29 days)         2013-01-12 00:00:00     ~     2013-02-10 00:00:00
         Synodic month(29.52 days)  2013-02-10 15:20:06     ~     2013-03-12 03:51:00
       + Dark moon day              2013-02-10 00:00:00     ~     2013-02-11 00:00:00
       - Next dark moon day         2013-03-12 00:00:00     ~     2013-03-13 00:00:00
     ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
         The month(30 days)         2013-02-10 00:00:00     ~     2013-03-12 00:00:00

السنة الشمسية(Suì岁) و Solar term(Jiéqì节气)

The solar year(Suì) in Chinese is the term between the winter solstice days.

          Tropical year (365.25 days)           2012-12-21 19:11:35     ~     2013-12-22 01:10:59 
     +    The day of the winter solstice        2012-12-21 00:00:00     ~     2012-12-22 00:00:00 
     -    The day of the next winter solstice   2013-12-22 00:00:00     ~     2013-12-23 00:00:00 
   -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Solar year(366 days)                  2012-12-21 00:00:00     ~     2013-12-21 00:00:00

A tropical year is divided into 12 solar term, which are called as Zi-term, Chou-term, Yin-term, Mao-term, Chen-term, Si-term, Wu-term, Wei-term, Shen-term, You-term, Xu-term, and Hai-term. There're 12 nodes between the terms and 12 midpints within the terms. the nodes are called as Jieqi, and the midpoints are called as Zhongqi. The nodes and midpoints is corresponding to each 15° points along the ecliptic.

The relationship between the nodes/midpoints, ecliptic position, and zodiac is list as below.

Solar Term الاسم خط الطول البرج
Zi-term(子) Node GS, Great Snow(Dàxuě大雪) 255°
Midpoint WS, Winter Solstice(Dōngzhì冬至) 270° Capricornus 270-300°
Chou-term(丑) Node SC, Slight Cold(Xiǎohán小寒) 285°
Midpoint GC, Great Cold(Dàhán大寒) 300° Aquarius 300-330°
Yin-term(寅) Node VB, Vernal Begins(Lìchūn立春) 315°
Midpoint RW,Rain Water(Yǔshuǐ雨水) 330° Pisces 330-360°
Mao-term(卯) Node IA, Insects Awaken(Jīnzhé惊蛰) 345°
Midpoint VE, Vernal Equinox(Chūnfēn春分) 360°/0° Aries 0-30°
Chen-term(辰) Node CB, Clear and Bright(Qīngmíng清明) 15°
Midpoint GR, Grain Rain(Gǔyǔ谷雨) 30° Taurus 30-60°
Si-term(巳) Node SB, Summer Begins(Lìxià立夏) 45°
Midpoint GF, Grain Full(Xiǎomǎn小满) 60° Gemini 60-90°
Wu-term(午) Node GE, Grain in Ear(Mángzhǒng芒种) 75°
Midpoint SS, Summer Solstice(Xiàzhì夏至) 90° Cancer 90-120°
Wei-term(未) Node SH, Slight Heat(Xiǎoshǔ小暑) 105°
Midpoint GH, Great Heat(Dàshǔ大暑) 120° Leo 120-150°
Shen-term(申) Node AB, Autumn Begins(Lìqiū立秋) 135°
Midpoint LH, Limit of Heat(Chúshǔ处暑) 150° Virgo 150-180°
You-term(酉) Node WD, White Dew(Báilù白露) 165°
Midpoint AE, Autumnal Equinox(Qiūfēn秋分) 180° Libra 180-210°
Xu-term(戌) Node CD, Cold Dew(Hánlù寒露) 195°
Midpoint FD, Frost's Descent(Shuāngjiàng霜降) 210° Scorpio 210-240°
Hai-term(亥) Node WB, Winter Begins(Lìdōng立冬) 225°
Midpoint LS, Light Snow(Xiǎoxuě小雪) 240° Sagittarius 240-270°
Node GS, Great Snow(Dàxuě大雪) 255°

أسماء الشهور

If the intercalary month is just the first of the 12 whole-months, it's called as Run-Dongyue(Intercalary Dongyue). If the intercalary month is not just the first of the 12 whole-months, it follow the name of the month before it. For example, the intercalary month after Qiyue is called as Run-Qiyue.

               2012-12-13 ~ 2013-01-11       Dongyue      WS:2012-12-21
          1    2013-01-12 ~ 2013-02-09       Layue
          2    2013-02-10 ~ 2013-03-11       Zhengyue
          3    2013-03-12 ~ 2013-04-09       Eryue
          4    2013-04-10 ~ 2013-05-09       Sanyue
          5    2013-05-10 ~ 2013-06-07       Siyue
          6    2013-06-08 ~ 2013-07-07       Wuyue
          7    2013-07-08 ~ 2013-08-06       Liuyue
          8    2013-08-07 ~ 2013-09-04       Qiyue
          9    2013-09-05 ~ 2013-10-04       Bayue
          10   2013-10-05 ~ 2013-11-02       Jiuyue
          11   2013-11-03 ~ 2013-12-02       Shiyue
               2013-12-03 ~ 2013-12-31       Dongyue      WS: 2013-12-22 
               2013-12-03 ~ 2013-12-31       Dongyue      WS: 2013-12-22 
          1    2014-01-01 ~ 2014-01-30       Layue        GC: 2014-01-20
          2    2014-01-31 ~ 2014-02-28       Zhengyue     RW: 2014-02-19
          3    2014-03-01 ~ 2014-03-30       Eryue        VE: 2014-03-21
          4    2014-03-31 ~ 2014-04-28       Sanyue       GR: 2014-04-20
          5    2014-04-29 ~ 2014-05-28       Siyue        GF: 2014-05-21
          6    2014-05-29 ~ 2014-06-26       Wuyue        SS: 2014-06-21
          7    2014-06-27 ~ 2014-07-26       Liuyue       GH: 2014-07-23
          8    2014-07-27 ~ 2014-08-24       Qiyue        LH: 2014-08-23
          9    2014-08-25 ~ 2014-09-23       Bayue        AE: 2014-09-23
          10   2014-09-24 ~ 2014-10-23       Jiuyue       FD: 2014-10-23
          11   2014-10-24 ~ 2014-11-21       Intercalary Jiuyue(Run-Jiuyue)
          12   2014-11-22 ~ 2014-12-21       Shiyue       LS: 2014-11-22
               2014-12-22 ~ 2015-01-19       Dongyue      WS: 2014-12-22

التناظر بين المصطلحات الشمسية والشهور القمرية

النتاظر بين الأنظمة

Jiǎzǐ (甲子)
sequence
الجذع/
الفرع
Gānzhī (干支) سنة...
[Note 1]
متصل
[Note 2]
گريگوري
[Note 3]
يوم رأس السنة
(chūnjié, 春節)
15 5/3 wùyín (戊寅) نمر التراب 4696 1998 January 28
16 6/4 jǐmǎo (己卯) أرنب التراب 4697 1999 February 16
17 7/5 gēngchén (庚辰) تنين المعدن 4698 2000 February 5
18 8/6 xīnsì (辛巳) ثعبان المعدن 4699 2001 January 24
19 9/7 rénwǔ (壬午) Water Horse 4700 2002 February 12
20 10/8 guǐwèi (癸未) ماعز الماء 4701 2003 February 1
21 1/9 jiǎshēn (甲申) Wood Monkey 4702 2004 January 22
22 2/10 yǐyǒu (乙酉) Wood Rooster 4703 2005 February 9
23 3/11 bǐngxū (丙戌) Fire Dog 4704 2006 January 29
24 4/12 dīnghài (丁亥) Fire Pig 4705 2007 February 18
25 5/1 wùzǐ (戊子) Earth Rat 4706 2008 February 7
26 6/2 jǐchǒu (己丑) Earth Ox 4707 2009 January 26
27 7/3 gēngyín (庚寅) Metal Tiger 4708 2010 February 14
28 8/4 xīnmǎo (辛卯) Metal Rabbit 4709 2011 February 3
29 9/5 rénchén (壬辰) Water Dragon 4710 2012 January 23

ملاحظات

1 The beginning of each zodiac year should correspond to the first day of the lunar year.

2 Calculating according to the number on executive order for reforming the calendar and era.

3 In any case, the correspondence between Chinese year and Gregorian year is of course not exact. The first few months of each Gregorian year (the days before Chinese New Year) belong to the previous Chinese year. For example, January 1–28, 2006 correspond to yǐyǒu or 4703. Thus, it might be more precise to state that Gregorian 2006 corresponds to 4703–4704, or that continuous Chinese 4704 corresponds to 2006–2007.

السنة الشمسية مقابل السنة القمرية

There is a distinction between a solar year and a lunar year in the Chinese calendar because the calendar is lunisolar. A lunar year ( nián) is from one Chinese new year to the next. A solar year ( suì) is either the period between one Spring Equinox and the next or the period between two winter solstices (see Jiéqì section). A lunar year is exclusively used for dates, whereas a solar year, especially that between winter solstices, is used to number the months.

ساعات اليوم

Under the traditional system of hour-marking, each day is divided into 12 units (時辰). Each of these units is equivalent to two hours of international time. Each is named after one of the 12 Earthly Branches. The first unit, Hour of Zi (子時), begins at 11 p.m. of the previous day and ends at 1 a.m. Traditionally, executions of condemned prisoners occur at the midpoint of Hour of Wu (正午時), i.e., noon.

عدد الأيام

<span id=".D8.A7.D9.84.D8.A3.D8.A8.D8.B1.D8.A7.D8.AC_.D8.A7.D9.84.D8.B5.D9.8A.D9.86.D9.8A.D8.A9" />الحيوانات الإثنا عشر

الإثنا عشر حيواناً (十二生肖 shí'èr shēngxiào، "رموز الميلاد الإثنا عشر" أو بالعامية 十二屬相 shí'èr shǔxiàng, "علامات الانتماء الإثنا عشر") التي تمثل 12 فرع دنيوي هم، بالترتيب، الفأر، الثور، النمر، الأرنب، التنين، برج الثعبان، الثعبان، الحصان، الماعز، القرد، الديك، الكلب، والخنزير. أسطورة السباق الكبير يشرح ترتيب الحيوانات.

<span id="Jieqi" />Solar term

Ecliptic
long.
Chinese name Gregorian
date (approx.)
Usual
translation
Remarks
315° 立春 lìchūn February 4 start of spring spring starts here according to the Chinese definition of a season
330° 雨水 yǔshuǐ February 19 rain water starting at this point, the temperature makes rain more likely than snow
345° 驚蟄 jīngzhé
(啓蟄 qǐzhé)
March 5 awakening of insects when hibernating insects awaken
春分 chūnfēn March 20 vernal equinox lit. the central divide of spring (referring to the Chinese seasonal definition)
15° 清明 qīngmíng April 5 clear and bright a Chinese festival where, traditionally, ancestral graves are tended
30° 穀雨 gǔyǔ or gǔyù April 20 grain rains rain helps grain grow
45° 立夏 lìxià May 6 start of summer refers to the Chinese seasonal definition
60° 小滿 xiǎomǎn May 21 grain full grains are plump
75° 芒種 mángzhòng or mángzhǒng June 6 grain in ear lit. awns (beard of grain) grow
90° 夏至 xiàzhì June 21 summer solstice lit. summer extreme (of sun's height)
105° 小暑 xiǎoshǔ July 7 minor heat when heat starts to get unbearable
120° 大暑 dàshǔ July 23 major heat the hottest time of the year
135° 立秋 lìqiū August 7 start of autumn uses the Chinese seasonal definition
150° 處暑 chùshǔ August 23 limit of heat lit. dwell in heat
165° 白露 báilù September 8 white dew condensed moisture makes dew white; a sign of autumn
180° 秋分 qiūfēn September 23 autumnal equinox lit. central divide of autumn (refers to the Chinese seasonal definition)
195° 寒露 hánlù October 8 cold dew dew starts turning into frost
210° 霜降 shuāngjiàng October 23 descent of frost appearance of frost and descent of temperature
225° 立冬 lìdōng November 7 start of winter refers to the Chinese seasonal definition
240° 小雪 xiǎoxuě November 22 minor snow snow starts falling
255° 大雪 dàxuě December 7 major snow season of snowstorms in full swing
270° 冬至 dōngzhì December 22 winter solstice lit. winter extreme (of sun's height)
285° 小寒 xiǎohán January 6 minor cold cold starts to become unbearable
300° 大寒 dàhán January 20 major cold coldest time of year

Note: The third jiéqì was originally called 啓蟄 (qǐzhé) but renamed to 驚蟄 (jīngzhé) in the era of the Emperor Jing of Han (漢景帝) to avoid writing his given name (also written as , a variant of 啓).

العطلات

Date English Chinese Vietnamese Remarks 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Zhengyue 1st Chinese New Year (Spring Festival) 春節 chūnjié Nguyên Đán(元旦) Family gathering and festivities for 3–15 days 0207 0126 0214 0203 0123 0210
Zhengyue 15th Lantern Festival
(Chap Goh Mei)
元宵節 yuánxiāo Thượng Nguyên (上元) 0221 0209 0228 0217 0206 0224
April 4th/5th Qingming Festival 清明節 qīngmíng Thanh Minh (清明) Tomb sweeping 0404 0404 0405 0405 0404 0404
Wuyue 5th Dragon Boat Festival 端午 duānwǔ Đoan Ngọ (端午) Dragon boat racing and zongzi eating 0608 0528 0616 0606 0623 0612
Qiyue 7th Night of Sevens 七夕 qīxī Thất tịch For lovers, like Valentine's Day 0807 0826 0816 0806 0823 0813
Qiyue 15th Ghost Festival
(Spirit Festival)
中元節 zhōngyuán Trung Nguyên (中元), or
Le Vu Lan (禮盂蘭)
Offer tributes and respect to the deceased 0815 0903 0824 0814 0831 0821
Bayue 15th Mid-Autumn Festival 中秋 zhōngqiū Trung Thu (中秋) Family gathering and moon cake eating 0914 1003 0922 0912 0930 0919
Jiuyue 9th Double Ninth Festival 重陽 chóngyáng Trùng Cửu (重九) Mountain climbing and flower shows 1007 1026 1016 1005 1023 1013
Shiyue 15th Peaceful Festival or Xia Yuan 下元節 xiàyuán Hạ Nguyên (下元) Pray for a peaceful year to the Water God 1112 1201 1120 1110 1128 1117
December 21th/22th Winter Solstice Festival 冬至 dōngzhì Lễ hội Đông Chí Family gathering, eat Tong yuen 1221 1221 1222 1222 1221 1221
Layue 23th/24th Kitchen God Festival 小年 xiǎonián Táo Quân (竈君) Worshipping the kitchen god with thanks 0131 0119 0207 0127 0117 0204

الغرض من الأشهر النسيء

الاستخدامات العملية

القضايا الثقافية

التأثير

انظر أيضا

ملاحظات

المصادر

  • van Dalen, Benno; Kennedy, E.S.; Saiyid, Mustafa K., «The Chinese-Uighur Calendar in Tusi's Zij-i Ilkhani», Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften 11 (1997) 111–151.

وصلات خارجية

gan:黃曆